Squishing blood stem cells could facilitate harvest for transplants
How deformable cells are, and thus how stiff or squishy they are, plays an important role in retaining blood-forming stem cells in their marrow niches and thus preserving their long-term repopulation capabilities.
Tall ice-cliffs may trigger big calving events -- and fast sea-level rise
Glaciers that drain ice sheets such as Antarctica or Greenland often flow into the ocean, ending in near-vertical cliffs. As the glacier flows into the sea, chunks of the ice break off in calving events. Although much calving occurs when the ocean melts the front of the ice, and ice cliff above falls down, a new study presents another method of calving: slumping. And this process could break off much larger chunks of ice at a quicker rate.
Teens who seek solitude may know what's best for them
Teens who choose to spend time alone may know what's best for them, according to new research that suggests solitude isn't a red flag for isolation or depression.
Energy monitor can find electrical failures before they happen
A new system can monitor the behavior of all electric devices within a building, ship, or factory, determining which ones are in use at any given time and whether any are showing signs of an imminent failure. When tested on a Coast Guard cutter, the system pinpointed a motor with burnt-out wiring that could have led to a serious onboard fire.
Anti-TB drugs can increase risk of TB re-infection
Current treatments for tuberculosis (TB) are very effective in controlling TB infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). They don't, however, always prevent reinfection. Why this happens is one of the long-standing questions in TB research. A team of scientists may have found the answer... in the gut.
Paleontologists report world's biggest Tyrannosaurus rex
Paleontologists have just reported the world's biggest Tyrannosaurus rex and the largest dinosaur skeleton ever found in Canada. The 13-metre-long T. rex, nicknamed 'Scotty,' lived in prehistoric Saskatchewan 66 million years ago.
Like mountaineers, nerves need expert guidance to find their way
Similar to the dozens of Sherpas that guide hikers up treacherous Himalayan mountains to reach a summit, the nervous system relies on elaborate timing and location of guidance cues for neuronal axons -- threadlike projections -- to successfully reach their destinations in the body. Now, researchers discover how neurons navigate a tricky cellular environment by listening for directions, while simultaneously filtering out inappropriate instructions to avoid getting lost.
Ankle exoskeleton fits under clothes for potential broad adoption
The device does not require additional components such as batteries or actuators carried on the back or waist.
How the 'good feeling' can influence the purchase of sustainable chocolate
More and more products carry ethical labels such as fair-trade or organic, which consumers view positively. Nevertheless, the sales figures of these products often remain low, even though they offer advantages for the environment or for society. A team of scientists have investigated what factors influence consumers' purchasing intentions.
Developing new organic materials for electronics
A scientist has new ways of accelerating the development of new organic materials for electronics. The new approaches could have applications in other types of materials science research.
Chemicals induce dipoles to damp plasmons
A new study discovers a mechanism by which molecules affect the plasmonic response of gold nanorods. The mechanism could be used to enhance applications like catalysis that involve plasmon-driven chemistry.
Citizen science programs provide valuable data on intermittent rivers in southwestern US
An OU-led project is showing how citizen science programs provide valuable data on rivers in southwestern United States. The ecological and hydrological data obtained from intermittent rivers (rivers that dry at some point in space or time) in Arizona are input into a nationwide network. Trained citizen scientists are mapping three rivers in Arizona: the San Pedro River, Cienega Creek and Agua Fria River.
Scientists argue for more comprehensive studies of Cascade volcanoes
Scientists argue for more 'synthesis' research looking at the big picture of volcanology to complement myriad research efforts looking at single volcanoes.
Hears the pitch: Team invents a new mode of photoacoustic imaging
Physicists developed a new mode of photoacoustic imaging called F-mode. This new mode selectively enhances photoacoustic image features based on the size of the object and the sounds it produces.
Potential new therapy for liver diseases
Drug therapy may effectively treat a potentially life-threatening condition associated with cirrhosis and other chronic liver diseases, according to a new study.
Mailing colorectal cancer screening kit found effective, regardless of financial incentive
Roughly a quarter of patients overdue for colorectal cancer screening mailed completed kits back within two months, even if they weren't given any kind of financial incentive.
A protein's surprising role offers clues to limit graft-vs.-host disease
In a surprising finding, researchers showed the protein NLRP6 aggravated the difficult symptoms of gastrointestinal graft-vs.-host disease. Knocking out this protein in mice led to significantly better survival and less severe GVHD.
Climate change affecting fish in Ontario lakes
Researchers have found warmer average water temperatures in Ontario lakes over the past decade have forced fish to forage in deeper water.
Colourful male fish have genes to thank for their enduring looks
Striking colors that are seen only in the males of some species are partly explained by gene behavior, research into guppy fish suggests.
When neurons are out of shape, antidepressants may not work
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most commonly prescribed medication for major depressive disorder (MDD), yet scientists still do not understand why the treatment does not work in nearly thirty percent of patients with MDD. Now, researchers have discovered differences in growth patterns of neurons of SSRI-resistant patients. The work has implications for depression as well as other psychiatric conditions such as bipolar disorder and schizophrenia that likely also involve abnormalities of the serotonin system in the brain.
Low-income neighborhoods more vulnerable to flooding, extreme heat
The methods can be replicated by cities to help them identify which neighborhoods are most at risk and what demographic factors characterize the most vulnerable citizens.
How does estrogen protect bones? Unraveling a pathway to menopausal bone loss
Women who have reached menopause are at a greater risk of developing osteoporosis, which can lead to bone fractures and long-term impairment of mobility. Studies have suggested a link between reduced bone density and low estrogen levels due to menopause, but the basis for this link is unclear. Researchers found that the protein Sema3A plays a key role in maintaining healthy bones, suggesting a new therapeutic avenue to treat osteoporosis.
A social bacterium with versatile habits
Related individuals of a soil bacterial species live in cooperative groups and exhibit astonishing genetic and behavioral diversity.
Arctic deep sea: Colonization in slow motion
There is a wide variety of animals living on the Arctic seabed. Attached to rocks, they feed by removing nutrients from the water using filters or tentacles. But it can take decades for these colonies to become established, and they probably don't achieve their natural diversity until much later.
Climate changes make some aspects of weather forecasting increasingly difficult
The ongoing climate changes make it increasingly difficult to predict certain aspects of weather, according to a new study. The study, focusing on weather forecasts in the northern hemisphere spanning 3-10 days ahead, concludes that the greatest uncertainty increase will be regarding summer downfalls, of critical importance when it comes to our ability to predict and prepare for flooding.
Salamanders chew with their palate
The Italian Crested Newt eats anything and everything it can overpower. Earthworms, mosquito larvae and water fleas are on its menu, but also snails, small fish and even its own offspring. A research team has now studied the newt's chewing behavior and has made an astounding discovery.
Caterpillars retrieve 'voicemail' by eating soil
Leaf-feeding caterpillars greatly enrich their intestinal flora by eating soil. It's even possible to trace the legacy effects of plants that previously grew in that soil through bacteria and fungi in the caterpillars.
Jupiter's unknown journey revealed
The giant planet Jupiter was formed four times further from the sun than its current orbit, and migrated inwards in the solar system over a period of 700,000 years. Researchers found proof of this incredible journey thanks to a group of asteroids close to Jupiter.
Highest energy density all-solid-state batteries now possible
Scientists have developed a new complex hydride lithium superionic conductor that could result in all-solid-state batteries with the highest energy density to date.
To stoke creativity, crank out ideas and then step away
There is an effective formula for unlocking employees' creative potential, according to new research. Employers should incentivize workers to produce an abundance of ideas -- even mediocre ones -- and then have them step away from the project for an 'incubation period.'
New mechanism to reduce inflammation
Researchers have identified two proteins that act as gatekeepers to dampen a potentially life-threatening immune response to chronic infection.
Sleep problems, Alzheimer's disease are linked, but which comes first?
A new article explores the pathophysiological factors that link sleep disturbances and Alzheimer's disease. Better understanding of this connection may lead to potential diagnostics and therapeutics for Alzheimer's disease, and other neurodegenerative diseases and dementia.
Optical 'tweezers' combine with X-rays to enable analysis of crystals in liquids
Scientists have developed a new technique that combines the power of microscale 'tractor beams' with high-powered X-rays, enabling them to see and manipulate crystals freely floating in solution.
Unequal pain relief at home for dying patients
Pain relief and end of life care is not being provided equally to people with advanced progressive diseases who were at home during their last three months of life, according to a study of 43,000 people who died across England.
Researchers get humans to think like computers
Computers, like those that power self-driving cars, can be tricked into mistaking random scribbles for trains, fences and even school buses. People aren't supposed to be able to see how those images trip up computers but in a new study, researchers show most people actually can.
4D-printed materials can be stiff as wood or soft as sponge
Imagine smart materials that can morph from being stiff as wood to as soft as a sponge - and also change shape. Rutgers University-New Brunswick engineers have created flexible, lightweight materials with 4D printing that could lead to better shock absorption, morphing airplane or drone wings, soft robotics and tiny implantable biomedical devices.
Stricter US state gun laws linked to safer high schools
Adopting stricter state gun laws is linked to a safer school experience for students, a new study has found. Strengthening gun laws at state level was associated with teens being less likely to report being threatened or injured with a weapon at school, miss at least one day of school due to feeling unsafe, or to carry a weapon at any location.
Highlighting social identity and peer group norms can increase water conservation
New research suggests that targeted use of behavioural 'nudges' can encourage people to conserve water. Researchers found that rather than giving people general information about the importance of saving water, emphasizing the water conserving actions of others in the same social group -- for example university students or local residents -- encourages similar behavior changes and reduces water demand.
New drug combination shows promise for common pediatric brain tumor
A new combination treatment aimed at resistant and recurrent low-grade gliomas slowed tumor growth and killed tumor cells in laboratory and mouse models.
Energy stealthily hitches ride in global trade
Fulfilling the world's growing energy needs summons images of oil pipelines, electric wires and truckloads of coal. But research shows a lot of energy moves nearly incognito, embedded in the products, and leaves its environmental footprint home.
Breast ultrasound and cancer detection rates increased under new laws
State breast density notification laws that mandate reporting of mammogram results can prompt further screening and modestly boost cancer detection rates, say researchers.
First of its kind statistics on pregnant women in US prisons
In what is believed to be a first-of-its-kind systematic look at pregnancy frequency and outcomes among imprisoned US women, researchers say almost 1,400 pregnant women were admitted to 22 US state and all federal prisons in a recent year. They also found that most of the prison pregnancies -- over 90 percent -- ended in live births with no maternal deaths.
Brain region discovered that only processes spoken, not written words
Patients in a new study were able to comprehend words that were written but not said aloud. They could write the names of things they saw but not verbalize them. For instance, if a patient in the study saw the word 'hippopotamus' written on a piece of paper, they could identify a hippopotamus in flashcards. But when that patient heard someone say 'hippopotamus,' they could not point to the picture of the animal.
Study in mice examines impact of reused cooking oil on breast cancer progression
Compounds in thermally abused cooking oils may trigger genetic, biochemical changes that hasten the progression of late-stage breast cancer, promoting tumor cells' growth and proliferation.
Kicking neural network automation into high gear
Algorithm designs optimized machine-learning models up to 200 times faster than traditional methods.
Natural plant defense genes provide clues to safener protection in grain sorghum
Weeds often emerge at the same time as vulnerable crop seedlings and sneak between plants as crops grow. How do farmers kill them without harming the crops themselves? In a new study, researchers identify genes and metabolic pathways responsible for safener efficacy in grain sorghum.
When more women make decisions, the environment wins
When more women are involved in group decisions about land management, the group conserves more - particularly when offered financial incentives to do so, according to a new study.
Research elucidates why protons are at the heart of atoms spin
A major new finding about the fundamental structure of all matter has just been published. The research stems from an analysis of data produced by an experiment in polarized proton-proton collisions.
Gift card incentives connected to healthier outcomes in employee wellness programs
Previous research shows that when choosing between different incentive options, employees prefer cash rewards. But cash might not be the most effective incentive. Its replacement? Gift cards.
Common cause in sudden death syndromes
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) and Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP) are syndromes that share many medical similarities but whose physiological causes are poorly understood. An opinion article publishing March 21 in the journal Trends in Neurosciences suggests that the inability for an individual to wake up when their CO2 blood levels rise, likely due to a faulty neural reflex, may be a shared cause for incidences of death in both disorders.
Sleep and ageing: Two sides of one coin?
Researchers have discovered a brain process common to sleep and ageing in research that could pave the way for new treatments for insomnia.
Plant scraps are the key ingredient in cheap, sustainable jet fuel
Scientists have developed a process for converting plant waste from agriculture and timber harvesting into high-density aviation fuel. Their research may help reduce CO2 emissions from airplanes and rockets.
Plant immunity cut to size
An international team has found a link between a class of enzymes and immune signals that is rapidly triggered upon physical damage in plants. This new discovery will increase our understanding of the plant immune system and might be exploited to improve crop health and yield in the future.
Half-a-billion-year-old fossil reveals the origins of comb jellies
One of the ocean's little known carnivores has been allocated a new place in the evolutionary tree of life after scientists discovered its unmistakable resemblance with other sea-floor dwelling creatures.
New evidence links lifespan extension to metabolic regulation of immune system
Researchers have uncovered a new mechanism of lifespan extension that links caloric restriction with immune system regulation.
High-fructose corn syrup boosts intestinal tumor growth in mice
Consuming a daily modest amount of high-fructose corn syrup -- the equivalent of people drinking about 12 ounces of a sugar-sweetened beverage daily -- accelerates the growth of intestinal tumors in mouse models of the disease, independently of obesity, according to new research.
Study shows alarming increases of firearm deaths in US school-age children
From 1999 to 2017, 38,942 US children ages 5 to 18 years old were killed by firearms, averaging more than 2,000 deaths a year. In 2017 alone, 2,462 school-age children were killed by firearms compared to 144 police officers and 1,000 active military worldwide who died in the line of duty. The study finds significant increases that began with an epidemic in 2009, followed by another one in 2014. Each of these epidemics has continued through 2017.
Antibodies stabilize plaque in arteries
Researchers have found that type IgG antibodies play an unexpected role in atherosclerosis. A study on mice shows that the antibodies stabilize the plaque that accumulates on the artery walls, which reduces the risk of it rupturing and causing a blood clot. It is hoped that the results will eventually lead to improved therapies.
The evolution of brain tumors
Scientists have found in a recent study that only three different genetic alterations drive the early development of malignant glioblastomas. At least one of these three cancer drivers was present in all tumors investigated. The tumors develop for up to seven years before they become noticeable as symptoms and are diagnosed. However, in contrast to their early development, glioblastomas, which return after therapy, share no concurrent genetic alterations.
Fertility restored in non-human primate model of childhood cancer survivorship
In a first, researchers have reported in a non-human primate model that immature testicular tissue can be cryopreserved, and later be used to restore fertility to the same animal.