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News (ScienceDaily Headlines)

  • Medicine that slows balding may turn stiff vessels supple, helping vital organs

    A medicine that slows balding and stimulates hair growth also may make stiff vessels more stretchy and improve blood flow to vital organs like the brain, according to an experimental model study.
  • Praise may motivate young adults with autism to exercise more

    Simple statements of praise may have a big effect on the amount of exercise young adults with autism complete, according to preliminary research. Technology may play a key role in delivering that praise.
  • Children of centenarians feel stronger purpose in life

    A sense of meaning and direction in life is associated with living longer and experiencing less disease, disability, and cognitive impairment. Now, a new study has found that the children of centenarians, who tend to have similar healthy aging patterns and long lives like their parents, are also much more likely than the general population to have a strong sense of purpose.
  • Improving fabrication process of nano-structures for electronic devices

    Researchers have found a more efficient fabricating process to produce semiconductors used in today's electronic devices. They also confirmed that materials other than silicon can be used successfully in the development process that could increase performance of electronic devices.
  • How obesity dulls the sense of taste

    Previous studies have indicated that weight gain can reduce one's sensitivity to the taste of food. Now a new study shows that inflammation, driven by obesity, actually reduces the number of taste buds on the tongues of mice.
  • State-by-state causes of infant mortality in the US

    Sudden unexpected death of infants (SUDI) was the most common cause of infant mortality among children born full term in the US according to estimates from a state-by-state study.
  • Decision-making is shaped by individual differences in the functional brain connectome

    Each day brings with it a host of decisions to be made, and each person approaches those decisions differently. A new study found that these individual differences are associated with variation in specific brain networks -- particularly those related to executive, social and perceptual processes.
  • Amygdala neurons increase as children become adults -- except in autism

    Researchers have found that typically-developing children gain more neurons in a region of the brain that governs social and emotional behavior, the amygdala, as they become adults. This phenomenon does not happen in people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Instead, children with ASD have too many neurons early on and then appear to lose those neurons as they become adults.
  • Scientists discern new antibiotics resistance mechanism to peptide antibiotics

    In a recent study, a group of scientists reveals both the widespread distribution and broad-spectrum resistance potential of D-stereospecific peptidases, providing a potential early indicator of antibiotic resistance to non-ribosomal peptide antibiotics.
  • A method for predicting the impact of global warming on disease

    Scientists have devised a new method that can be used to better understand the likely impact of global warming on diseases mediated by parasites, such as malaria. The method uses the metabolic theory of ecology to understand how temperature affects the host-parasite relationship, and has been proofed using a model system.
  • Vitamin D might be key to syndrome affecting half of women aged 50 or plus

    Research with postmenopausal women, found a 57.8 percent rate of metabolic syndrome (MetS) among women presenting vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency. MetS affects half of United States' female population above the age of 50 and increases the risks of heart diseases and diabetes.
  • TRAPPIST-1 planets provide clues to the nature of habitable worlds

    To determine the composition of the TRAPPIST-1 planets, the team used a unique software package that uses state-of-the-art mineral physics calculators. The software, called ExoPlex, allowed the team to combine all of the available information about the TRAPPIST-1 system, including the chemical makeup of the star, rather than being limited to just the mass and radius of individual planets.
  • Marine researchers say recent sea star wasting disease epidemic defies prediction

    Beginning in 2013, a mysterious disease crippled sea star populations up and down the U.S. west coast. Over a matter of months, many sea star species died in record-breaking numbers, though the ochre sea star was among the hardest hit. Now, researchers have analyzed just how much the populations of this species have declined, but they have not yet determined what factors might be contributing to the epidemic.
  • What plants can teach us about oil spill clean-up, microfluidics

    For years, scientists have been inspired by nature to innovate solutions to tricky problems, even oil spills -- manmade disasters with devastating environmental and economic consequences. A new study takes a cue from leaf structure to fabricate material that can separate oil and water, which could lead to safer and more efficient oil spill clean-up methods.
  • Taming chaos: Calculating probability in complex systems

    Weather patterns, brain activity and heartbeats each generate lines of complex data. To analyze this data, researchers must first divide up this continuous data into discrete pieces -- a task difficult to perform simply and accurately. Researchers have devised a method to transform data from complex systems, reducing the amount of important information lost, while still using less computing power than existing methods.
  • Hydrogel may help heal diabetic ulcers

    A hydrogel that is adept at helping the body heal may also be particularly good at treating wounds related to diabetes.
  • Molecular response of muscle to different types of exercise identified

    Exercise in the future could be customized for individuals based on genomics, according to a new study. For years, scientists have studied the effects of different types of exercise on the human body, but never before at this level of molecular precision, according to researchers.
  • 'Missing mutation' found in severe infant epilepsy

    Researchers have discovered a 'missing mutation' in severe infant epilepsy -- long-suspected genetic changes that might trigger overactive, brain-damaging electrical signaling leading to seizures. They also found early indications that specific anti-seizure medications might prevent disabling brain injury by controlling epilepsy during a crucial period shortly after birth.
  • Excitations: First steps of photosynthesis

    Photosynthesis has driven life on this planet for more than 3 billion years -- first in bacteria, then in plants -- but we don't know exactly how it works.
  • Natural enemies reduce pesticide use

    Crop variety in agriculture has a positive impact on the natural enemies of aphids. Farmers can use this insight to keep aphids at bay and cut down on pesticides.
  • Filling lithium-ion cells faster

    Developers are using neutrons to analyze the filling of lithium ion batteries for hybrid cars with electrolytes. Their experiments show that electrodes are wetted twice as fast in a vacuum as under normal pressure.
  • We start caring about our reputations as early as kindergarten

    Kindergarteners don't use social media, but they do care about their public image. By the time kids go to elementary school, they're thinking critically about their reputation. Psychologists consider how our fascination with social status begins around age five, when kids begin to consider how they are viewed by others and behave in ways that cultivate positive reputations.
  • Role of specific gene in 16p11.2 deletion autism

    New findings in mice suggest that the lack of a copy of the gene MVP may contribute to the symptoms of 16p11.2 deletion syndrome because it is needed for brain circuits to incorporate changes driven by experience.
  • The search for dark matter widens

    Investigators report the discovery of a new material that may be able to directly detect dark matter. The material, known as a scintillator, should be sensitive to dark matter that is lighter than a proton. This will allow the search for dark matter to enter a largely unexplored mass range, below that of the proton.
  • Researchers create microlaser that flies along hollow optical fiber

    For the first time, researchers have optically trapped and propelled a particle-based laser for centimeters inside an optical fiber.
  • Men more likely to be readmitted to hospital after sustaining a firearm injury, study finds

    Men have a substantially greater hospital readmission risk during the first three months following a firearm injury hospitalization compared to women. While this overall risk was no longer observed at six months after the initial hospitalization, the risk of renal failure and cardiovascular readmissions among males was more than three times greater than females at six months.
  • Study of climate change could lead to understanding future of infectious disease

    Over the past 34 years, rainfall in Uganda has decreased by about 12 percent even though many of the global climate models predict an increase in rainfall for the area, according to an international team of researchers. Rainfall levels in Uganda impact agriculture, food security, wildlife habitats and regional economics as well as the prevalence of certain diseases.
  • A star disturbed the comets of the solar system 70,000 years ago

    About 70,000 years ago, a small reddish star approached our solar system and gravitationally disturbed comets and asteroids. Astronomers have verified that the movement of some of these objects is still marked by that stellar encounter.
  • Parenting and personality work together to affect baby's weight gain

    The more mothers use food to soothe their babies, the more weight certain babies gained, according to researchers. The effect was only seen in babies with a surgent temperament -- characterized by being more outgoing, active and drawn to new things and people, putting these children at a risk for obesity later on.
  • Wind, sea ice patterns point to climate change in western Arctic

    A major shift in western Arctic wind patterns occurred throughout the winter of 2017 and the resulting changes in sea ice movement are possible indicators of a changing climate, says a researcher.
  • Living abroad leads to a clearer sense of self

    Living abroad can clarify your sense of self, according to new research by a team of social scientists. They found living abroad increases 'self-concept clarity,' the extent to which individuals' beliefs about themselves are clearly and confidently defined and consistent and stable over time.
  • Low-tech, affordable solutions to improve water quality

    Clever, fundamental engineering could go a long way toward preventing waterborne illness and exposure to carcinogenic substances in water.
  • Obtaining energy from marine currents

    Researchers have developed procedures and designs to obtain energy from marine currents in areas of great depths optimizing the costs.
  • Even flies like a familiar song

    The process that allows sounds experienced during infancy to shape language is poorly understood. Researchers have found that courtship behavior in Drosophila melanogaster can be shaped by earlier auditory experiences. Their findings allowed them to develop a novel and simple neurological model to study how experiences of sound can shape complex modes of communication in animals.
  • Antibiotics could be key to relieving chronic bladder pain

    Antibiotics can successfully help rid a patient of chronic urinary tract infection symptoms, according to a new clinical study. The research highlights the growing concern of many practitioners that the tests they rely on to diagnose urinary tract infections are inadequate.
  • Why do some people 'hear' silent flashes?

    Up to one in five people may show signs of a synesthesia-like phenomenon in which they 'hear' silent flashes or movement, according to a new study.
  • 20 percent of Americans responsible for almost half of US food-related greenhouse gas emissions

    On any given day, 20 percent of Americans account for nearly half of US diet-related greenhouse gas emissions, and high levels of beef consumption are largely responsible, according to a new study.
  • Dogs with noise sensitivity should be routinely assessed for pain by vets

    Dogs which show fear or anxiety when faced with loud or sudden noises should be routinely assessed for pain by veterinarians, according to new research. Researchers believe that pain, which could be undiagnosed, could be exacerbated when a noise makes the dogs tense up or 'start', putting extra stress on muscles or joints which are already inflamed leading to and associated with a loud or startling noise.
  • Ultrasound to enhance cancer drug delivery

    Medical researchers are testing the use of pulsed sound waves to direct and focus cancer drug therapies.
  • Vegetable compound could have a key role in 'beeting' Alzheimer's disease

    A compound in beets that gives the vegetable its distinctive red color could help slow the accumulation of misfolded proteins in the brain, a process associated with Alzheimer's disease. Scientists say this could lead to the development of drugs that could alleviate some of the long-term effects of the disease, the world's leading cause of dementia.
  • Making fragrances last longer

    From floral perfume to fruity body wash and shampoos, scents heavily influence consumer purchases. But for most, the smell doesn't last long after showering. Scientists have now developed a way to get those fragrances to stick to the skin longer instead of washing down the drain immediately after being applied.
  • Smoked foods are tastier, less harmful with a tip from the auto industry

    Infusing foods with smoke can impart delicious nuanced flavors, but could also come with an unwelcome side of carcinogens. To reduce the carcinogen content of smoked foods, researchers took a lesson from the automobile industry, running the smoke through a zeolite filter to remove harmful compounds. It worked, and with a happy bonus: superior smoke flavor.
  • 'Candy cane' polymer weave could power future functional fabrics and devices

    If scientists are going to deliver on the promise of implantable artificial organs or clothing that dries itself, they'll first need to solve the problem of inflexible batteries that run out of juice too quickly. Today, researchers report that they've developed a new material by weaving two polymers together in a way that increases charge storage capacity.
  • Wildfire intensity impacts water quality and its treatment in forested watersheds

    The recent Thomas Fire was the largest wildfire in in California's modern history. Now, researchers report that wildfires in forested watersheds can have a variable but predictable impact on the substances that are released from soils and flow into drinking water sources. The research provides important insights for water utilities evaluating treatment options after severe wildfires.
  • Continuously killing bacteria on coated stainless steel -- add bleach to recharge

    Stainless steel is the gold standard for kitchen appliances and cookware, but bacteria can grow on these surfaces, contaminating food. Current coatings available on the market are pricey and potentially harmful, so scientists have now developed an affordable specialized polymer coating for such surfaces that they can recharge with bleach treatments.
  • Tiny gels sop up intestinal toxins

    Bacterial infections that target the intestine can cause conditions that range from uncomfortable to deadly. While it's easy to blame the bacteria, it's actually the toxins the bacteria produce that trigger inflammation, diarrhea, fever and cramps. Researchers now report the development of a microgel scavenger that targets toxins instead of bacteria.
  • US children now draw female scientists more than ever

    When drawing scientists, US children now depict female scientists more often than ever, according to new research, which analyzed five decades of 'Draw-A-Scientist' studies conducted since the 1960s. This change suggests that children's stereotypes linking science with men have weakened over time, said the researchers, consistent with more women becoming scientists and children's media depicting more female scientists on television shows, magazines and other media.
  • 3-D-printed models improve medical student training

    A relatively inexpensive 3-D-printed model of a patient's blood vessels is as effective as current commercially available models for training medical students in interventional radiology vascular access, according to a new study.
  • High consumption of red and processed meat linked to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and insulin resistance

    World meat consumption has increased during the last decades, and evidence is mounting that high consumption of red and mainly processed meat is unhealthy to humans and is related to chronic diseases such as cancer, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. A new study adds non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) to the list.
  • Effective parenting strategies to reduce disruptive behavior in children

    Most parenting programs aim to teach parents how to reduce their children's disruptive behavior. New research looked at more than 150 studies of these programs, finding differences in what works best according to whether or not children already showed behavior problems.
  • Researchers create new low-cost, sustainable material for reducing air and water pollution

    A new class of hybrid materials shows promise as an affordable and sustainable product for reducing particulate matter in air and organic pollutants in wastewater. The material, produced inexpensively from an industrial waste by-product and naturally abundant polymers, performed more efficiently than activated carbon, the current gold standard.
  • Tamoxifen and raloxifene slow down the progression of muscular dystrophy

    Steroids are currently the only available treatment to reduce the repetitive cycles of inflammation and disease progression associated with functional deterioration in patients with muscular dystrophy (MD). A study has shown that a new treatment approach using the selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) tamoxifen and raloxifene significantly improved cardiac, respiratory, and skeletal muscle functions and increased bone density in both male and female mice with the same gene defects as a subset of patients with MD.
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome possibly explained by lower levels of key thyroid hormones

    A new study reveals that chronic fatigue syndrome, a debilitating condition with unknown causes, can be explained by lower thyroid levels -- but may be distinct from thyroidal disease. This can be seen as a first step to finding a treatment for a common illness for which diagnosis is hard to come by.
  • Rain or snow? Humidity, location can make all the difference, new map shows

    Researchers have created a map of the Northern Hemisphere showing how location and humidity can affect precipitation, illustrating wide variability in how and why different areas receive snow or rain.
  • Discovered mode of drinking in mosquitoes carries biomedical implications

    Mosquitoes may have a reputation for being one of the world's most intractable pests, but they're actually quite tiny and fragile. So when an international team of scientists wanted to observe the underlying mechanisms of how the insects feed, they had to get creative.
  • Trial shows safety of drugs for irregular heartbeat patients undergoing treatment

    A trial has found that two types of blood thinning drugs are safe to use in patients with an irregular heartbeat when they are undergoing surgery aimed at stopping the condition.
  • Switch discovered to convert blood vessels to blood stem cells in embryonic development

    A switch has been discovered that instructs blood vessel cells to become blood stem cells during embryonic development in mice. The findings could aid research into creating new blood cells for transplants and for understanding cancer metastasis.
  • Pipe-crawling robot will help decommission DOE nuclear facility

    A pair of autonomous robots will soon be driving through miles of pipes at the US Department of Energy's former uranium enrichment plant in Piketon, Ohio, to identify uranium deposits on pipe walls.
  • Sound new technique tunes into the shifting shapes of biology

    Scientists have come up with a novel way of quantifying cell shapes -- with a lot of mathematics and a little musical inspiration.
  • New deep reef ocean zone, the rariphotic, teeming with new fish species

    Diving down below the range of scuba in the Curasub, Smithsonian deep reef explorers discovered a new world where roughly half of the fish had no names. They are calling it the rariphotic.