Why do people share? It's contagious, six-year study of Hadza people shows
In the modern world, people cooperate with other people including strangers all the time. We give blood, tip providers of various services, and donate to charity even though there is seemingly nothing in it for us. Now, researchers who've studied Hadza hunter-gatherer people in Tanzania over a six-year period have new and surprising insight into why people work together.
How lactoferrin clamps down on free roaming iron ions to stop nefarious effects on cells
What prevents our cells being damaged due to overexposure to iron ions is a protein called lactoferrin, known for its ability to bind tightly to such ions. Researchers used a combined experimental and molecular dynamics simulation to study the changes in the structure of lactoferrin as it binds to iron ions.
Hookworms employ live fast/die young strategy in fur seal pup hosts
Hookworms exploit a live fast/die young strategy in their South American fur seal pup hosts. As a result, they often kill their host, rather than finding a happy equilibrium. Scientists are concerned that this type of hookworm infection could eventually pose a risk to critically endangered populations of fur seals.
Matter falling into a black hole at 30 percent of the speed of light
Astronomers report the first detection of matter falling into a black hole at 30% of the speed of light, located in the center of the billion-light year distant galaxy PG211+143. The team used data from the European Space Agency's X-ray observatory XMM-Newton to observe the black hole.
Widely used nonprofit efficiency tool doesn't work
A recent study finds that the tool most often used to assess the efficiency of nonprofit organizations isn't just inaccurate -- it is negatively correlated with efficiency.
Anti-cancer drugs may hold key to overcoming antimalarial drug resistance
Scientists have found a way to boost the efficacy of the antimalarial drug artemesinin with the help of chemotherapy medicines. Artemisinin works through a 'double whammy' attack on the deadly parasite. The drug damages proteins in malaria parasites and clogs the parasite's waste disposal system, known as the proteasome, which chemo can target.
Immediate compression could help prevent complications after deep-vein thrombosis
People with deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) can substantially cut their risk of potentially debilitating complications by starting adequate compression therapy in the first 24 hours of DVT therapy (known as the acute phase of treatment), suggests a new study.
Glacial engineering could limit sea-level rise, if we get our emissions under control
Targeted engineering projects to hold off glacier melting could slow down ice-sheet collapse and limit sea-level rise, according to a new study. While an intervention similar in size to existing large civil engineering projects could only have a 30 percent chance of success, a larger project would have better odds of holding off ice-sheet collapse. But the researchers caution that reducing emissions still remains key to stopping climate change and its dramatic effects.
American girls read and write better than boys
As early as the fourth grade, girls perform better than boys on standardized tests in reading and writing, and as they get older that achievement gap widens even more.
Southeast Asian population boomed 4,000 years ago
Researchers have uncovered a previously unconfirmed population boom across South East Asia that occurred 4,000 years ago, thanks to a new method for measuring prehistoric population growth.
Analysis of sea squirt embryo reveals key molecules in dopaminergic neuron differentiation
Researchers have used a novel approach for analyzing the central nervous system of a proto-vertebrate to identify a regulatory cocktail that induces the creation of dopaminergic neurons/coronet cells, a primitive version of the hypothalamus. The findings shed more light on how neurons differentiate into particular subtypes, with potential implications for the treatment of conditions such as Parkinson's disease.
Basking sharks can jump as high and as fast as great whites
These gentle giants, which can grow up to 10 m in length, have been recorded jumping out of the water as high and as fast as great white sharks. Marine biologists are unsure why they do this, but have pointed to this phenomenon as evidence of how much we still have to learn about marine life.
Physicists train robotic gliders to soar like birds
Scientists know that upward currents of warm air assist birds in flight. To understand how birds find and navigate these thermal plumes, researchers used reinforcement learning to train gliders to autonomously navigate atmospheric thermals. The research highlights the role of vertical wind accelerations and roll-wise torques as viable biological cues for soaring birds. The findings also provide a navigational strategy that directly applies to the development of UAVs.
New test procedure accelerates the diagnosis of multi-resistant hospital pathogens
The diagnosis of multi-resistant hospital pathogens is now possible in 45 minutes instead of 72 hours. Further research is necessary before the procedure is ready for clinical application.
Climate change modifies the composition of reefs
Corals devastated by climate change are being replaced naturally by other species such as gorgonians, which are less efficient in acting as a carbon sink. A study has analyzes for the first time why gorgonians are more resistant than corals to human impacts and global climate change.
Fatty acids can slow down an overheated immune system
The STING protein is normally an important part of our immune system, but in some autoimmune diseases it is itself the source of the disease. The pharmaceutical industry is therefore engaged in a race to find a drug that can inhibit STING. Now, researchers may have found it.
Test could detect patients at risk from lethal fungal spores
Scientists have discovered a genetic mutation in humans linked to a 17-fold increase in the amount of dangerous fungal spores in the lungs. The study could allow doctors to screen patients at risk from Aspergillus, and could easily be developed into a test.
Flood frequency of Amazon River has increased fivefold
A recent study of more than 100 years of river level records from the Amazon shows a significant increase in frequency and severity of floods.
Crunched for time? High-intensity exercise gives same cell benefits in fewer minutes
A few minutes of high-intensity interval or sprinting exercise may be as effective as much longer exercise sessions in spurring beneficial improvements in mitochondrial function, according to new research.
Can a common heart condition cause sudden death?
About one person out of 500 has a heart condition known as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). This condition causes thickening of the heart muscle and results in defects in the heart's electrical system. Under conditions of environmental stress such as exercise, HCM can result in sudden death. In other cases, patients may go undiagnosed, with their heart function declining gradually over decades.
Scientists identify three causes of Earth's spin axis drift
Using observational and model-based data spanning the entire 20th century, scientists have for the first time have identified three broadly-categorized processes responsible for Earth's spin axis drift -- contemporary mass loss primarily in Greenland, glacial rebound, and mantle convection.
Super cheap earth element to advance new battery tech to the industry
Worldwide efforts to make sodium-ion batteries just as functional as lithium-ion batteries have long since controlled sodium's tendency to explode, but not yet resolved how to prevent sodium-ions from 'getting lost' during the first few times a battery charges and discharges. Now, researchers made a sodium powder version that fixes this problem and holds a charge properly.
Flu season forecasts could be more accurate with access to health care companies' data
New research shows that data routinely collected by health care companies -- if made available to researchers and public health agencies -- could enable more accurate forecasts of when the next flu season will peak, how long it will last and how many people will get sick.
Outside competition breeds more trust among coworkers
Working in a competitive industry fosters a greater level of trust amongst workers, finds a new study.
From crystals to climate: 'Gold standard' timeline links flood basalts to climate change
Princeton geologists used tiny zircon crystals found in volcanic ash to rewrite the timeline for the eruptions of the Columbia River flood basalts, a series of massive lava flows that coincided with an ancient global warming period 16 million years ago.
'Robotic Skins' turn everyday objects into robots
When you think of robotics, you likely think of something rigid, heavy, and built for a specific purpose. New 'Robotic Skins' technology flips that notion on its head, allowing users to animate the inanimate and turn everyday objects into robots.
DNA tests of illegal ivory link multiple ivory shipments to same dealers
Scientists report that DNA test results of large ivory seizures made by law enforcement have linked multiple ivory shipments over the three-year period, when this trafficking reached its peak, to the same network of dealers operating out of a handful of African ports.
Unprecedented ice loss in Russian ice cap
In the last few years, the Vavilov Ice Cap in the Russian High Arctic has dramatically accelerated, sliding as much as 82 feet a day in 2015, according to a new multi-national, multi-institute study. That dwarfs the ice's previous average speed of about 2 inches per day and has challenged scientists' assumptions about the stability of the cold ice caps dotting Earth's high latitudes.
Quantum anomaly: Breaking a classical symmetry with ultracold atoms
A new study of ultracold atomic gases finds a quantum anomaly: strongly interacting particles breaking classical symmetry in a 2-D Fermi gas.
Improving 'silvopastures' for bird conservation
The adoption of 'silvopastures' -- incorporating trees into pastureland -- can provide habitat for forest bird species and improve connectivity in landscapes fragmented by agriculture. But how do silvopastures measure up to natural forest habitat? New research shows that birds in silvopasture forage less efficiently than those in forest fragments but offers suggestions for how silvopasture habitat could be improved.
Newly identified African bird species already in trouble
Central Africa's Albertine Rift region is a biodiversity hotspot consisting of a system of highlands that spans six countries. Recent studies have shown that the population of sooty bush-shrikes occupying the region's mid-elevation forests is a distinct species, and new research reveals that this newly discovered species may already be endangered due to pressure from agricultural development.
Commercially relevant bismuth-based thin film processing
Researchers prepared 2D layered, visible-light-absorbing bismuth sulfide semiconductors using a two-step process. The resulting film exhibited morphology that supported excellent semiconductor performance. The simplicity and versatility of the processing method, which uses non-toxic, abundant materials, makes bismuth sulfide a viable alternative to commercially available photoresponsive devices.
Anti-inflammatory protein promotes healthy gut bacteria to curb obesity
Scientists have discovered that the anti-inflammatory protein NLRP12 normally helps protect mice against obesity and insulin resistance when they are fed a high-fat diet. The researchers also reported that the NLRP12 gene is underactive in people who are obese, making it a potential therapeutic target for treating obesity and diabetes, both of which are risk factors for cardiovascular disease and other serious conditions.
More doctor visits lead to fewer suicide attempts for fibromyalgia patients
Fibromyalgia patients who regularly visit their physicians are much less likely to attempt suicide than those who do not, according to a new study.
Lighting it up: A new non-toxic, cheap, and stable blue photoluminescent material
Scientists have designed a novel photoluminescent material that is cheap to fabricate, does not use toxic starting materials, and is very stable, enhancing our understanding of the quantic nature of photoluminescence.
How long does a quantum jump take?
Quantum jumps are usually regarded to be instantaneous. However, new measurement methods are so precise that it has now become possible to observe such a process and to measure its duration precisely -- for example the famous 'photoelectric effect', first described by Albert Einstein.
Moderate warming could melt East Antarctic Ice Sheet
Parts of the world's largest ice sheet would melt if Antarctic warming of just 2°C is sustained for millennia, according to international research. Scientists used evidence from warm periods in Earth's history to see how the East Antarctic Ice Sheet might react to a warming climate.
Gaia hints at our Galaxy’s turbulent life
Our Milky Way galaxy is still enduring the effects of a near collision that set millions of stars moving like ripples on a pond, the Gaia star mapping mission has shown.
New nanoparticle superstructures made from pyramid-shaped building blocks
In research that may help bridge the divide between the nano and the macro, chemists have used pyramid-shaped nanoparticles to create what might be the most complex macroscale superstructure ever assembled.
Diverse forests are stronger against drought
Researchers report that forests with trees that employ a high diversity of traits related to water use suffer less of an impact from drought. The results, which expand on previous work that looked at individual tree species' resilience based on hydraulic traits, lead to new research directions on forest resilience and inform forest managers working to rebuild forests after logging or wildfire.
Zombie cells found in brains of mice prior to cognitive loss
Zombie cells are the ones that can't die but are equally unable to perform the functions of a normal cell. These zombie, or senescent, cells are implicated in a number of age-related diseases. Researchers have now expanded that list.
Characterization of pregnancy microbiome reveals variations in bacterial diversity
Researchers performed detailed whole-community sequencing on the microbial communities of three maternal body sites (vagina, gut, and oral cavity) over the course of pregnancy from the first trimester through delivery revealing variations in bacterial diversity.
Microbubble scrubber destroys dangerous biofilms
Stiff microbial films often coat medical devices, household items and infrastructure such as the inside of water supply pipes, and can lead to dangerous infections. Researchers have developed a system that harnesses the power of bubbles to propel tiny particles through the surfaces of these tough films and deliver an antiseptic deathblow to the microbes living inside.
Women who breastfeed for at least five months have more kids
New research shows that women who breastfeed their first child for five months or longer are more likely to have three or more children, and less likely to have only one child.
If pigeons were brilliant, would they flock?
Researcher looked at how people behave in simple reasoning games and found that people are usually driven to 'flock,' or behave similarly to others in a given situation.
People can handle the truth (more than you think)
New research explores the consequences of honesty in everyday life and determines that people can often afford to be more honest than they think.
New research identifies abundant endangered fish below waterfall in San Juan River
A new study provides insight into the magnitude of the effect this waterfall has on endangered fishes in the San Juan River. From 2015-2017 more than 1,000 razorback sucker and dozens of Colorado pikeminnow were detected downstream of the waterfall. Some fish moved to this location from up to 600 miles away in the Colorado River.
Fiber optic sensor measures tiny magnetic fields
Researchers have developed a light-based technique for measuring very weak magnetic fields, such as those produced when neurons fire in the brain.
Scientists examine variations in a cell's protein factory
Scientists are studying the factors within a cell that can influence noise. They discovered that for 85 percent of genes, the noise magnitude is higher in the last step as compared to the first step.
Strategies to protect bone health in hematologic stem cell transplant recipients
A new review looks at the major factors affecting bone health in mematologic stem cell transplant recipients, and provides expert guidance for the monitoring, evaluation and treatment of bone loss in these patients.
Mineral weathering from thawing permafrost can release substantial CO2
The amount of carbon dioxide released from thawing permafrost might be greater than previously thought, according to a new study by ecologists. The research is the first to document the potential for substantial contributions of CO2 from thawing permafrost to the atmosphere through an inorganic process called mineral weathering.
New insight into aging
Researchers examined the effects of aging on neuroplasticity in the primary auditory cortex, the part of the brain that processes auditory information. Neuroplasticity refers to the brain's ability to modify its connections and function in response to environmental demands, an important process in learning.
Cane toad: Scientists crack genetic code
Scientists have unlocked the DNA of the cane toad, a poisonous amphibian that is a threat to many native Australian species.
When a chemical tag makes the difference in cell fate and gene expression
Scientists have uncovered the role of special chemical 'tags' in controlling vital genes involved in early mammalian development.
New method enables accurate diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease
A new brain imaging method can show the spread of specific tau protein depositions, which are unique to cases with Alzheimer's.
Where you live might influence how you measure up against your peers
Social psychologists uncover important mechanisms of social comparison, showing that it depends on specific, universal social settings and situations.
Getting help with parenting makes a difference -- at any age
Parenting interventions for helping children with behavior problems are just as effective in school age, as in younger children, a new study finds.
Cell mechanism regulating protein synthesis in stress conditions discovered
New research has uncovered the mechanism used by cells to optimize the production of proteins in stressful situations by altering tRNA abundance.
Heartbeat paces learning, study finds
A new study shows that the processing of external information varies during the phases of the cardiac cycle.
Difficult people have most to gain from practicing compassion
New research finds that the most disagreeable individuals, who are also the least likely to be kind, can benefit most from behaving more compassionately.