Graphene in zero G promises success in space
Experiments testing graphene for two different space-related applications have shown extremely promising results.
Study prompts new ideas on cancers’ origins
Cancer therapies often target cells that grow and divide rapidly, such as stem cells, but in studying how stomach cancers occur, researchers found that even when the stomach isn't able to make stem cells, other cells in the stomach can begin to divide and contribute to precancerous lesions.
Nanostructures control heat transfer
For the first time, scientists have succeeded in precisely controlling temperature-dependent thermal conductivity with the help of polymer materials. These advanced functional materials were initially produced for laboratory experiments. The findings are of great relevance to the development of new concepts of thermal insulation.
Screening could catch a quarter of hip fractures before they happen
Community screening for osteoporosis could prevent more than a quarter of hip fractures in older women.
Easier paths to quantum-based techology
Engineers have shown that a widely used method of detecting single photons can also count the presence of at least four photons at a time. The researchers say this discovery will unlock new capabilities in physics labs working in quantum information science around the world, while providing easier paths to developing quantum-based technologies.
Drinking hot tea every day linked to lower glaucoma risk
Drinking a cup of hot tea at least once a day may be linked to a significantly lower risk of developing the serious eye condition, glaucoma, finds a small study.
A new theory to describe widely used material
A new theoretical model explains the coupling between ions and electrons in the widely used conducting polymer PEDOT:PSS. The model has profound implications for applications in printed electronics, energy storage in paper, and bioelectronics.
Discovery could reduce cost, energy for high-speed Internet connections
Researchers have developed an optical medium in which multiple beams of light can autocorrect their properties without affecting other beams. This could lead to a dramatic reduction in the cost and energy consumption of high-speed internet communications.
Artificial intelligence used to identify bacteria quickly and accurately
Microscopes enhanced with artificial intelligence (AI) could help clinical microbiologists diagnose potentially deadly blood infections and improve patients' odds of survival, according to microbiologists.
Nanodiscs catch misfolding proteins red-handed
When proteins misfold, accumulate and clump around insulin-producing cells in the pancreas, they kill cells. Now, researchers have obtained a structural snapshot of these proteins when they are most toxic, detailing them down to the atomic level.
Complex, old-growth forests may protect some bird species in a warming climate
Old forests that contain large trees and a diversity of tree sizes and species may offer refuge to some types of birds facing threats in a warming climate, scientists have found.
What does hair loss have to teach us about cancer metastasis?
Researchers have identified a signaling pathway regulating cell migration and metastasis. Unexpected hair loss in a preclinical model helped them to identify the pathway. When cells within the skin that maintain hair follicles migrate too often, hair follicle maintenance is disrupted. Researchers speculated that this pathway might also play a role in cancer cell migration. Indeed, they showed that disrupting this pathway in preclinical models increased metastasis.
Genetic instructions from mom set the pattern for embryonic development
A new study indicates an essential role for a maternally inherited gene in embryonic development. The study found that zebrafish that failed to inherit specific genetic instructions from mom developed fatal defects earlier in development, even if the fish could make their own version of the gene.
Our memory shifts into high gear when we think about raising our children, new study shows
Human memory has evolved so people better recall events encountered while they are thinking about raising their offspring, according to a new study.
After searching 12 years for bipolar disorder's cause, research team concludes it has many
Nearly six million Americans have bipolar disorder, and most have probably wondered why. After more than a decade of studying over 1,100 of them in-depth, a team of scientists has an answer -- or rather, seven answers.
How much soil goes down the drain: New data on soil lost due to water
According to a new study, almost 36 billion tons of soil is lost every year due to water, and deforestation and other changes in land use make the problem worse. The study also offers ideas on how agriculture can change to become a part of the solution from being part of the problem.
Heavy-petroleum fuels raising vanadium emissions
Human emissions of the potentially harmful trace metal vanadium into Earth's atmosphere have spiked sharply since the start of the 21st century due in large part to industry's growing use of heavy oils, tar sands, bitumen and petroleum coke for energy, a new Duke study finds. These emissions now exceed those from all natural sources combined. Growing evidence suggests exposure to vanadium-rich aerosols can impair respiratory functions and exacerbate conditions such as asthma or COPD.
Erectile dysfunction is red flag for silent early cardiovascular disease
Despite decades long prevention and treatment efforts, cardiovascular (CV) disease continues to be the leading cause of death worldwide. Early detection of CV disease can allow for interventions to prevent heart attack and stroke, including smoking cessation, medications such as a statins, blood pressure control, weight management, exercise, and improved diet. A new study focuses on a novel risk factor for cardiovascular disease that rarely receives attention -- erectile dysfunction.
Error-free into the quantum computer age
Ion-trap technologies available today are suitable for building large-scale quantum computers, research shows. Scientists have introduced trapped-ion quantum error correction protocols that detect and correct processing errors.
3-D nanoscale imaging made possible
Imaging at the nanoscale is important to a plethora of modern applications in materials science, physics, biology, medicine and other fields. Limitations of current techniques are, e.g. their resolution, imaging speed or the inability to look behind opaque objects with arbitrary shapes. Scientists have now demonstrated a method for meeting this challenge with stunning properties.
Distinct human mutations can alter the effect of medicine
About one third of all medicine binds to the same type of receptor in the human body. An estimated three percent of the population have receptors of this type that are so genetically different that they are predisposed to altered, ineffective or adverse responses to medicine, a new study shows.
Real-time observation of collective quantum modes
When symmetries in quantum systems are spontaneously broken, the collective excitation modes change in characteristic ways. Researchers have now directly observed such Goldstone and Higgs modes for the first time.
Vitamin deficiency in later life
One in two persons aged 65 and above has suboptimal levels of vitamin D in the blood and one in four older adults has suboptimal vitamin B12 levels.
Genetic study uncovers fungal sex secrets, which shed light on candidiasis
A new genetic analysis of fungal yeast infections (candidiasis) from around the world has revealed surprising secrets about how these microbes reproduce and cause disease, according to a new study.
Shoe-box-sized chemical detector
A chemical sensor prototype will be able to detect 'single-fingerprint quantities' of substances from a distance of more than 100 feet away, and its developers are working to shrink it to the size of a shoebox.
Exposure to larger air particles linked to increased risk of asthma in children
Researchers report statistical evidence that children exposed to airborne coarse particulate matter — a mix of dust, sand and non-exhaust tailpipe emissions, such as tire rubber — are more likely to develop asthma and need emergency room or hospital treatment for it than unexposed children.
Martti, developed for adverse weather conditions, is the first Finnish robot car to challenge snow and ice
Martti, the robot car developed in Finland, is the first automated car to have driven fully autonomously on a real snow-covered road.
Committed to relatives: Hounds and wolves share their parasites
Grey wolves, as all wild animals, are hosts to a variety of parasites. The presence of grey wolves in German forests has little influence on the parasite burden of hunting dogs, according to a new study.
More electronic materials opened up with new metal-organic framework
More materials for electronic applications could be identified, thanks to the discovery of a new metal-organic framework (MOF) that displays electrical semiconduction with a record high photoresponsivity, by a global research collaboration.
The locomotion of hominins in the Pleistocene was just as efficient as that of current humans
Researchers have analyzed the influence of body proportions on the cost of locomotion by means of an experimental energetic study with 46 subjects of both sexes, whose results indicate that the walk of Pleistocene hominins was no less efficient energetically than that of current humans.
Ancient feces reveal parasites described in earliest Greek medical texts
Earliest archaeological evidence of intestinal parasitic worms infecting the ancient inhabitants of Greece confirms descriptions found in writings associated with Hippocrates, the early physician and 'father of Western medicine.'
Cancer immunotherapy may work better in patients with specific genes
Investigators have been trying to understand why and have recently found how an individual's own genes can play a role in the response to the immunotherapy drugs.
Offbeat brainwaves during sleep make older adults forget
Like swinging a tennis racket during a ball toss to serve an ace, slow and speedy brainwaves during deep sleep must sync up at exactly the right moment to hit the save button on new memories, according to new research.
Unusual thermal convection in a well-mixed fluid: Can a syrup separate when mixed?
Researchers have recently discovered unusual thermal convection in a uniform mixture of high and low viscosity liquids. They found that concentration fluctuations are enhanced by thermal convection when the two liquids have a large viscosity difference. Such mixtures are ubiquitously observed in nature, daily life, and manufacturing processes, e.g. mantle convection, syrup, polymer products. These results promise further insight into non-equilibrium phenomena in fluid mixtures with contrasting 'thickness.'
Coarse particulate matter may increase asthma risk
Children exposed to coarse particulate matter may be more likely to develop asthma and to be treated in an ER or be hospitalized for the condition, according to new research.
Indonesian island found to be unusually rich in cave paintings
A tiny Indonesian island, previously unexplored by archaeologists, has been found to be unusually rich in ancient cave paintings following a study.
Nanoparticles as a solution against antibiotic resistance?
Scientists have succeeded in developing an efficient method to treat mucoviscidosis. Crucial are nanoparticles that transport the antibiotics more efficiently to their destination. First of all, the active particles need to have a certain size to be able to reach the deeper airways and not to bounce off somewhere else before. Ultimately, they have to penetrate the thick layer of mucus on the airways as well as the lower layers of the bacteria biofilm.
Higher blood sugar in early pregnancy raises baby's heart-defect risk
Higher blood sugar early in pregnancy raises the baby's risk of a congenital heart defect, even among mothers who do not have diabetes, according to a study.
New catalyst meets challenge of cleaning exhaust from modern engines
Researchers have created a catalyst capable of reducing pollutants at the lower temperatures expected in advanced engines.
Visitor patterns and emerging activities in Finish national parks revealed by social media posts
Social media data provide a reliable information to support decision-making in national parks.
First-of-its-kind chemical oscillator offers new level of molecular control
Researchers successfully constructed a first-of-its-kind chemical oscillator that uses DNA components. DNA molecules that follow specific instructions could offer more precise molecular control of synthetic chemical systems, a discovery that opens the door for engineers to create molecular machines with new and complex behaviors.
Graspable objects grab attention more than images of objects do, study finds
Does having the potential to act upon an object have a unique influence on behavior and brain responses to the object? That is the question researchers set out to answer in a new report.
Horrific mating strategy appears to benefit both male and female redback spiders
A mating strategy among redback spiders where males seek out immature females appears to benefit both sexes, a new study has found.
Computational strategies overcome obstacles in peptide therapeutics development
Recently developed computational strategies could help realize the promise of peptide-based drugs. Researchers were able to sample the diverse landscape of shapes that peptides can form as a guide for designing the next generation of stable, potent, selective drugs. They compiled a library of peptide scaffolds upon which drug candidates might be designed. Their methods also can be used to design additional custom peptides with arbitrary shapes on demand.
Better way to weigh millions of solitary stars
Astronomers have come up with a new and improved method for measuring the masses of millions of solitary stars, especially those with planetary systems.
Suicidal thoughts rapidly reduced with ketamine, finds study
Ketamine was significantly more effective than a commonly used sedative in reducing suicidal thoughts in depressed patients, according to researchers. They also found that ketamine's anti-suicidal effects occurred within hours after its administration.
Simulation model finds Cure Violence program and targeted policing curb urban violence
When communities and police work together to deter urban violence, they can achieve better outcomes with fewer resources than when each works in isolation, a simulation model created by researchers.
Six-decade-old space mystery solved with shoebox-sized satellite called a CubeSat
A 60-year-old mystery about the source of energetic, potentially damaging particles in Earth's radiation belts has been solved using data from a shoebox-sized satellite built and operated by students. The satellite is called a CubeSat.
MRSA risk at northeast Ohio beaches
A study conducted in 2015 shows a higher-than-expected prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) at beaches around Lake Erie.
Valley fever cases see major spike in November, experts say
An uptick in reported cases of Valley fever indicates a likely sharp increase in infections next year. At the same time, federal clearance for a rapid assay test developed with assistance from the University of Arizona should help reduce delays in diagnosing the respiratory fungal disease caused by spores found in area soils.
Food-induced anaphylaxis common among children despite adult supervision
At least a third of reactions in children with food-induced anaphylaxis to a known allergen occur under adult supervision, according to a new study. The findings reveal that inadvertent exposures to a known food allergen in children are frequent, and in the majority of supervised reactions, adults other than the child's parents were present.
Northeast farmers weigh warming climate, drenched fields
Farmers in the Northeast are adapting to longer growing seasons and warming climate conditions -- but they may face spring-planting whiplash as they confront fields increasingly saturated with rain, according to a research paper.
Computer systems predict objects' responses to physical forces
New research examines the fundamental cognitive abilities that an intelligent agent requires to navigate the world: discerning distinct objects and inferring how they respond to physical forces.
Conserving the forests
Certification programs are being reevaluated as options for sustaining tropical forests, explain scientists.
One in five materials chemistry papers may be wrong, study suggests
Can companies rely on the results of one or two scientific studies to design a new industrial process or launch a new product? In at least one area of materials chemistry, the answer may be yes -- but only 80 percent of the time.
All politics -- and cannabis marketing -- are local
California's legal cannabis market, opening for business on Jan. 1, is expected to quickly grow to be the largest in the nation and worth more than $5 billion a year. County voting on Proposition 64 that led the state here -- to legalizing sales for recreational use -- can offer insight into how medical marijuana dispensaries will now market themselves.
Bioluminescent worm found to have iron superpowers
Researchers have made a discovery with potential human health impacts in a parchment tubeworm, found to have ferritin with the fastest catalytic performance ever described.
National MagLab's latest magnet snags world record, marks new era of scientific discovery
The Florida State University-headquartered National High Magnetic Field Laboratory has shattered another world record with the testing of a 32-tesla magnet -- 33 percent stronger than what had previously been the world's strongest superconducting magnet used for research and more than 3,000 times stronger than a small refrigerator magnet.
Mechanism identified of impaired dendritic cell function that weakens response to cancer
The mechanism implicated in the defective function of tumor-associated dendritic cells (DCs), a specialized type of immune cells that expose the antigens on their surface to activate the T cells, has now been revealed by researchers.
Intervention offered in school readiness program boosts children's self-regulation skills
Adding a daily 20 to 30 minute self-regulation intervention to a kindergarten readiness program significantly boosted children's self-regulation and early academic skills, a researcher has found.