Energized fabrics could keep soldiers warm and battle-ready in frigid climates
Soldiering in arctic conditions is tough. Protective clothing can be heavy and can cause overheating and sweating, while hands and feet can grow numb. To keep military personnel more comfortable, scientists are trying to create high-tech fabrics that heat up when powered and that capture sweat. These fabrics could conceivably be used in future consumer clothing.
Testing TVs and tablets for 'green' screens
Today, researchers report preliminary results suggesting that under simulated landfill conditions, quantum dots can leach out of TVs and tablets. But because this happens in such tiny amounts, the team says that in the grand scheme of things, it might make sense to use the more toxic quantum dots that are made with a more eco-friendly process. The researchers are presenting their results at the 254th National Meeting & Exposition of the American Chemical Society.
No guts no glory: Harvesting the microbiome of athletes
Scientists have tapped into the microbiome of elite runners and rowers, and have identified particular bacteria that may aid athletic performance. The goal is to develop probiotic supplements that may help athletes -- and even amateur fitness enthusiasts -- recover from a tough workout or more efficiently convert nutrients to energy. The researchers will present their work today at the 254th National Meeting & Exposition of the American Chemical Society.
Silk could improve sensitivity, flexibility of wearable body sensors
From smart socks to workout clothes that measure exertion, wearable body sensors are becoming the latest 'must-have' technology. Now scientists report they are on the cusp of using silk, one of the world's most coveted fabrics, to develop a more sensitive and flexible generation of these multi-purpose devices that monitor a slew of body functions.
Mussel-inspired glue could one day make fetal surgery safer
Whether to perform surgery on a fetus is a heart-wrenching decision. This type of surgery involves penetrating the delicate amniotic sac, increasing health risks to the fetus. Now researchers report the development of a glue, inspired by the tenacious grip of mussels on slippery rocks, that could one day help save the lives of the youngest patients.
Sugars in human mother's milk are new class of antibacterial agents
A new study has found that sugars in mother's' milk do not just provide nutrition for babies but also help protect them from bacterial infections, making them a new class of antimicrobial agent.
Novel approach to track HIV infection
Scientists used a novel live-cell fluorescent imaging system that allowed them for the first time to identify individual viral particles associated with HIV infection.
Seeking the secret ingredient in the original smallpox vaccine
Thanks to a secret vaccine ingredient as well as a net of worldwide researchers and successful vaccination campaigns, smallpox was finally eradicated in 1977. A new study provides an in-depth investigation of the mysteries associated with the development of smallpox vaccine and is a rich and interesting account of how the vaccine lymph was spread worldwide.
New Bioimaging technique is fast and economical
A new approach to optical imaging makes it possible to quickly and economically monitor multiple molecular interactions in a large area of living tissue -- such as an organ or a small animal; technology that could have applications in medical diagnosis, guided surgery, or pre-clinical drug testing.
To reduce postoperative pain, consider sleep -- and caffeine
A new preclinical study found that a brief period of extended wakefulness before surgery enhances pain and prolongs recovery time after surgery. Caffeine administration helped to reduce the harmful effects of sleep loss on subsequent surgical pain.
Astrophysicist predicts detached, eclipsing white dwarfs to merge into exotic star
Astrophysicists have discovered two detached, eclipsing double white dwarf binaries with orbital periods of 40 and 46 minutes, respectively. White dwarfs are the remnants of Sun-like stars, many of which are found in pairs, or binaries.
Ocean channel in Bahamas marks genetic divide in Brazilian free-tailed bats
Brazilian free-tailed bats are expert flyers, capable of migrating hundreds of miles and regularly traveling more than 30 miles a night. But they pull up short at a narrow ocean channel that cuts across the Bahamas, dividing bat populations that last shared an ancestor hundreds of thousands of years ago.
Eclipse research: Following in the moon's slipstream to capture high-res sunspot images
While much of the research around the eclipse on Monday will focus on the effects of the Sun's brief, daytime disappearance on Earth and its atmosphere, a group of solar physicists will be leveraging the rare event to capture a better glimpse of the star itself.
Study of California kidney cancer shows declining incidence, end of a trend
A study of kidney cancer incidence in California over 25 years is the first report to demonstrate that the rising rate of kidney cancer seen in the US over the past two decades may have ended.
Can Twitter aid disaster response? New research examines how
With over 500 million tweets sent every single day, new research is investigating innovative ways to use that data to help communities respond during unexpected catastrophes.
How immature cells grow up to be red blood cells
Researchers have identified the mechanism behind red blood cell specialization and revealed that it is controlled by an enzyme called UBE2O. This finding could spark the development of new treatments for blood disorders and cancers.
Quick and easy way to shut down instabilities in fusion devices
Scientists have discovered a remarkably simple way to suppress a common instability that can halt fusion reactions and damage the walls of reactors built to create a "star in a jar."
Hot spot at Hawaii? Not so fast
Geophysicists use a new model to conclude that volcanic hot spots around the globe aren't moving as fast as recently thought.
Despite benefits, half of parents against later school start times
Leading pediatrics and sleep associations agree: Teens shouldn't start school so early. Yet recent research finds parents are split almost down the middle on whether they support delays in school start times that might permit their 13- to 17-year-olds to sleep later on school days.
Smokers 20 percent more likely to quit when cigarettes cost $1 more
Smokers were found to be 20 percent more likely to quit smoking when packs of cigarettes cost just one dollar more, according to a new public health study.
Mineral layer around avian flu pathogen may be the cause for human infections
Avian flu can be transmitted from birds to humans; transmission among humans, however, is limited. The reason may be an eggshell-like mineral layer that the virus acquires due to the high calcium concentration in the intestines of birds. These mineralized viruses are significantly more infectious and, in addition, more robust and heat stable than the native viruses.
The power of perovskite
Researchers improve perovskite-based technology in the entire energy cycle, from solar cells harnessing power to LED diodes to light the screens of future electronic devices and other lighting applications.
Cheesemaking secret unlocked
Researchers say their new knowledge on the inner workings of a bacterium has important implications for Australia's billion dollar cheese industry. The research group has explained the regulation of an enzyme in the bacterium Lactococcus, which is used as a starter culture in cheese production.
Mechanisms explaining positional diversity of the hindlimb in tetrapod evolution
Elucidating how body parts in their earliest recognizable form are assembled in tetrapods during development is essential for understanding the nature of morphological evolution. Researchers found in eight tetrapod species that the position of the sacral vertebrae and the hindlimbs is determined by the initiation timing of Gdf11 gene expression. This will contribute to a forthcoming model explaining the coupling of spine and hindlimb positioning - a major step in fully understanding tetrapod evolution.
Rebutting the claim that antidepressants do not work
A theory that has gained considerable attention in international media suggest that antidepressant drugs, such as the SSRIs, do not exert any actual antidepressant effect. A research group has now analyzed data from clinical trials and can rebut this theory.
How whip-like cell appendages promote bodily fluid flow
Researchers have revealed that a molecule called Daple is essential for the correct orientation and coordinated beating of cilia on the surface of cells lining ventricles in the brain. Without Daple, the cilia develop a random arrangement and cannot produce a uniform flow of CSF. This in turn leads to a build-up of fluid, which is associated with swelling of the head, known as hydrocephalus.
Flexibility at work key to helping women maintain careers after childbirth
Flexibility in the workplace is the key to helping women maintain their career trajectory after childbirth, new research has shown.
Artificial neural networks decode brain activity during performed and imagined movements
Filtering information for search engines, acting as an opponent during a board game or recognizing images: Artificial intelligence has far outpaced human intelligence in certain tasks. Researchers are showing how ideas from computer science could revolutionize brain research. They illustrate how a self-learning algorithm decodes human brain signals that were measured by an electroencephalogram (EEG).
Organ crosstalk: Fatty liver can cause damage to other organs
Scientists have discovered that a fatty liver can cause damage to other organs. They demonstrate the effects of fatty liver disease on the function of the hormone-producing islet cells in the pancreas and on renal function.
Population health impact of infants born small for gestational age in low- and middle-income countries
Researchers have used the first international, multi-ethnic birth weight standard, known as the INTERGROWTH-21st, to describe the global burden of suboptimal fetal growth.
Mitochondria: A map of the cell's powerhouse
Researchers are mapping the distribution of all proteins in mitochondria for the first time.
Data revealed under FOI shows benefits of MS drug currently blocked by regulators
A drug that is blocked by the EU regulatory system has now been found to improve the quality of life of people with multiple sclerosis (MS), according to a new study.
Lasers used to detect risk of heart attack and stroke
Patients at risk of heart attacks and strokes may be spotted earlier thanks to a diagnosis tool that uses near-infrared light to identify high-risk arterial plaques.
Why whisky tastes better when diluted with water
There is a reason why whisky is diluted with water before being bottled. The same reason also makes many whisky enthusiasts add a few drops of water in their glasses – it makes the whisky taste better. But why is this so? Researchers have now presented an answer to this question.
Spoiler alert: Computer simulations provide preview of upcoming eclipse
Scientists have forecast the corona of the sun during the upcoming eclipse. The findings shed light on what the eclipse of the sun might look like Aug. 21 when it will be visible across much of the US, tracing a 70-mile-wide band across 14 states.
Archaeologists uncover ancient trading network in Vietnam
A team of archaeologists has uncovered a vast trading network which operated in Vietnam from around 4,500 years ago up until around 3,000 years ago.
Climate change and habitat conversion combine to homogenize nature
Climate change and habitat conversion to agriculture are working together to homogenize nature. In other words, the more things change, the more they are the same.
Histone 1, the guardian of genome stability
Genomic instability is the main risk factor for tumor development in humans. Therefore understanding its origin and and exploring therapeutic targets is paramount. Histone 1 silences a region of the genome that causes irreparable DNA damage when translated and is lethal for the organism.
Gene variant activity is surprisingly variable between tissues
Every tissue has its own pattern of active alleles, a large-scale study has found. Researchers were able to show that the differential allele activity is regulated by tissue-specific, regulatory DNA elements known as enhancers - a process that could also be involved in many diseases.
Right kind of collaboration is key to solving environmental problems
Society's ability to solve environmental problems is tied to how different actors collaborate and the shape and form of the networks they create, says a new study.
Allergies: Cross-reactivity between cypress pollen and peaches/citrus fruits explained
Medical researchers have identified the likely origin of the cross-reactivity between cypress pollen, peaches and citrus fruits. Their work has shown that these sources contain allergens belonging to a new family of proteins involved in pollen food associated syndrome. This discovery paves the way for the development of novel allergy diagnostic tests.
Citrus fruits were the clear status symbols of the nobility in the ancient Mediterranean
New research reveals that citrons and lemons were status symbols for the ancient Roman ruling elite. It also plots the route and evolution of the citrus trade in the ancient Mediterranean.
Spider silk protein may be useful for engineering artificial cardiac tissue
Ever more people are suffering from cardiac insufficiency. The main cause of reduced cardiac functionality lies in the irreversible loss of cardiac muscle cells due to disease, especially ischemic diseases such as cardiac infarction. There is still no treatment to reverse damage of this nature. Research is ongoing to develop methods of repairing such damage to normalize cardiac function. A promising approach: cardiac muscle tissue made of spider silk.
Hypertension during pregnancy may affect women's long-term cardiovascular health
Women who experience hypertension during pregnancy face an increased risk of heart disease and hypertension later in life, according to a new study.
Athletic ability and finger length linked?
Researchers have studied the correlation between athletic ability and finger length.
Contraceptive pill linked to lowered risk of rheumatoid arthritis
Taking the contraceptive pill, particularly for seven or more consecutive years, is linked to a lowered risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis.
Schoolchildren who use e-cigarettes are more likely to try tobacco
New research suggests that teenagers who had tried an e-cigarette were almost four times more likely to start smoking a conventional cigarette within a year, when compared to classmates who had not.
In search of Edwards' pheasant: Amost extinct?
Scientists say we need to improve our information about little-known species to reduce the risk of one going extinct just because no-one is interested in looking for it.
Cholesterol crystals are sure sign a heart attack may loom
A new study on 240 emergency room patients shows just how much of a role a person's cholesterol plays, when in a crystallized state, during a heart attack.
The laws of attraction: Pheromones don't lie, fruit fly research suggests
For the first time, scientists have shown that a female fruit fly's pheromone signals can actually tell males how much energy her body has invested in egg production versus in storing away energy for her own survival. And it's a signal that she can't change in order to make herself more attractive.
A better way to measure mortality trends?
A new study suggests long-term mortality trends may be better understood by focusing on life-years lost -- remaining life expectancy for a decedent -- instead of solely looking at cause of death.
Cigarette makers shifted stance on nicotine patches, gum, study shows
Tobacco companies have known for decades that, without counseling, NRT hardly ever works, and that consumers often use it to complement smoking. This insight from the formerly secret industry documents, outlines a new report.
Community health workers lead to better health, lower costs for Medicaid patients
As politicians struggle to solve the nation's healthcare problems, a new study finds a way to improve health and lower costs among Medicaid and uninsured patients. Researchers showed that patients who received support from community health workers (CHWs) had 30 percent fewer hospital admissions in one year compared to those who did not receive CHW support. The results also showed reductions in cigarette smoking, obesity, diabetes severity, and mental illness.
Engineering team images tiny quasicrystals as they form
What makes quasicrystals so interesting? Their unusual structure. Now scientists are actively pursuing this relatively new area of study.
Study validates East Antarctic ice sheet to remain stable even if western ice sheet melts
A new study validates that the central core of the East Antarctic ice sheet should remain stable even if the West Antarctic ice sheet melts.
Gold nanostars and immunotherapy vaccinate mice against cancer
By combining an FDA-approved cancer immunotherapy with an emerging tumor-roasting nanotechnology, researchers improved the efficacy of both therapies in a proof-of-concept study using mice. The potent combination also attacked satellite tumors and distant cancerous cells, completely curing two mice and effectively vaccinating one against the disease.
Loans Applications? New techniques to measure social bias in software
Today, banks are increasingly using software to decide who will get a loan, courts to judge who should be denied bail, and hospitals to choose treatments for patients. These uses of software make it critical that the software does not discriminate against groups or individuals, say computer science researchers.
AI implications: Engineer's model lays groundwork for machine-learning device
In what could be a small step for science potentially leading to a breakthrough, an engineer has taken steps toward using nanocrystal networks for artificial intelligence applications.
New gene catalog of ocean microbiome reveals surprises
Oceanographers report completing the largest single-site microbiome gene catalog constructed to date. With this new information, the team discovered nutrient limitation is a central driver in the evolution of ocean microbe genomes.
Disrupted gut microbiome makes children more susceptible to amoebic dysentery
Children with lower diversity of microbial species in their intestines are more susceptible to severe infection with the Entamoeba histolytica parasite, according to a new study.