Critical step in DNA repair, cellular aging pinpointed
The body's ability to repair DNA damage declines with age, which causes gradual cell demise, overall bodily degeneration and greater susceptibility to cancer. Now, research reveals a critical step in a molecular chain of events that allows cells to mend their broken DNA.
Botany: A stem's 'sense of self' contributes to shape
It is well known that as plants grow, their stems and shoots respond to outside signals like light and gravity. But if plants all have similar stimuli, why are there so many different plant shapes? Using simple mathematical ideas, researchers have constructed a framework that explains and quantifies the different shapes of plant stems.
Chemists ID catalytic 'key' for converting CO2 to methanol
Results from experiments and computational modeling studies that definitively identify the 'active site' of a catalyst commonly used for making methanol from CO2 will guide the design of improved catalysts for transforming this pollutant to useful chemicals.
People often use the word 'you' rather than 'I' to cope with negative experiences
Researchers say it may seem contradictory that a means of generalizing to people at large is used when reflecting on one's most personal and idiosyncratic experiences.
Milky Way-like galaxies in early universe embedded in 'super halos'
Astronomers have directly observed a pair of Milky Way-like galaxies seen when the universe was only eight percent of its current age. These progenitors of today's giant spiral galaxies are surrounded by 'super halos' of hydrogen gas that extend many tens-of-thousands of light-years beyond their dusty, star-filled disks.
Most cancer mutations are due to random DNA copying 'mistakes'
Scientists report data from a new study providing evidence that random, unpredictable DNA copying 'mistakes' account for nearly two-thirds of the mutations that cause cancer. Their research is grounded on a novel mathematical model based on DNA sequencing and epidemiologic data from around the world.
A 'carbon law' offers pathway to halve emissions every decade
On the eve of this year's Earth hour (March 25), researchers propose a solution in the journal Science for the global economy to rapidly reduce carbon emissions. The authors argue a carbon roadmap, driven by a simple rule of thumb or 'carbon law' of halving emissions every decade, could catalyze disruptive innovation.
Designer proteins fold DNA: Biophysicists construct complex hybrid structures using DNA and proteins
Scientists have developed a new method that can be used to construct custom hybrid structures using DNA and proteins. The method opens new opportunities for fundamental research in cell biology and for applications in biotechnology and medicine.
Gravitational wave kicks monster black hole out of galactic core
Astronomers have uncovered a supermassive black hole that has been propelled out of the center of the distant galaxy 3C 186. The black hole was most likely ejected by the power of gravitational waves.
Scientists reveal hidden structures in bacterial DNA
Researchers have described the 3D structure of the genome in the extremely small bacteria Mycoplasma pneumoniae. They discovered previously unknown arrangements of DNA within this tiny bacteria, which are also found in larger cells. Their findings suggest that this type of organization is a universal feature of living cells.
Researchers find another immune system link science said didn't exist
A part of the body thought to be disconnected from the immune system actually interacts with it, report investigators, and that discovery helps explain cases of male infertility, certain autoimmune diseases and even the failure of cancer vaccines.
When people prepare for conflict, dominant leaders take the stage
One popular theory holds that dominant leaders are supported by those who fear new situations and threats. However, new research shows that support for dominant leaders is not born of fear, but of a wish to handle the country's problems by aggressive means.
Strong interaction between herbivores and plants
Important findings have been revealed on the interaction between nutrient availability and the diversity of consumer species in freshwater environments. A better understanding of this interaction will contribute to developing possibilities to maintain biodiversity in all kinds of ecosystems.
Hand-held X-ray sources
Electronic oscillations in graphene could make a tabletop — or even handheld — source of X-rays a reality, report researchers.
A tough coat for silicon
Supercritical carbon dioxide delivers protective molecules to semiconductor surfaces, report researchers in a new article.
Giant salamanders, geckos and olms: Vanishing species diversity in Siberia
Scientists have studied the development of the amphibian and reptile fauna in Western Siberia during the past twelve million years. In their study, they demonstrate that the species diversity of both groups of animals was noticeably higher in the past than it is today. Among others, for the first time the researchers discovered an Asiatic representative of the extinct frog family Palaeobatrachidae as well as evidence of a giant salamander with a length of up to 1.80 meters.
Blood fatty acids reveal your child's diet
Eating lots of sugary candy may strain the liver, alter the body’s fatty acid metabolism and increase the risk of cardiometabolic diseases already in childhood. Children’s blood fatty acid composition reflects their diet – but luckily this composition can be influenced by lifestyle interventions, say researchers.
New portal to unveil the dark sector of the universe
Once upon a time, the Universe was just a hot soup of particles. In those days, together with visible particles, other particles to us hidden or dark might have formed. Billions of years later scientists catalogued 17 types of visible particles, with the most recent one being the Higgs boson, creating the 'Standard Model'. However, they are still struggling to detect the hidden particles, the ones that constitute the dark sector of the Universe.
Male hormone plays key role in ovarian development
The male “androgen” hormone is an important element in the ovarian development of female chicken embryos, more so than in the development of male testes, scientists have discovered.
Spiritual retreats change feel-good chemical systems in the brain
More Americans than ever are turning to spiritual, meditative and religious retreats as a way to reset their daily life and enhance well-being. Now, researchers show there are changes in the dopamine and serotonin systems in the brains of retreat participants.
Immune study in chickens reveals key hurdle for Campylobacter vaccine effort
The immune response of farmed chickens does not develop fast enough to fight off Campylobacter during their short lifespan, new research has found. The findings have important implications in the challenge towards developing a poultry vaccine for the bug, which is the UK's leading cause of food poisoning.
Biologists find surprising variability in courtship behaviors of wolf spiders
Studies of wolf spiders found that courtship displays help preserve genetic isolation between closely related species. Another study found that the species Gladicosa bellamyi used multi-modal communication to entice females.
Largest survey to date of patient and family experience at US children's hospitals
A survey of more than 17,000 parents of hospitalized children gives mixed responses about the quality of the inpatient experience at 69 US children's hospitals.
Yellow fever killing thousands of monkeys in Brazil
In a vulnerable forest in southeastern Brazil, where the air was once thick with the guttural chatter of brown howler monkeys, there now exists silence. Yellow fever, a virus carried by mosquitoes and endemic to Africa and South America, has robbed the private, federally-protected reserve of its brown howlers in an unprecedented wave of death that has swept through the region since late 2016, killing thousands of monkeys.
Biopesticide could defeat insecticide resistance in bedbugs
A fungal biopesticide that shows promise for the control of bed bugs is highly effective even against bed-bug populations that are insecticide resistant, according to research.
Transgender college freshmen drink more, experience more blackouts, study shows
A survey of more than 422,000 college freshmen found that students who identified as transgender were more likely than their cisgender peers to experience negative consequences from drinking, including memory blackouts, academic problems and conflicts such as arguments or physical fights.
Research questions effectiveness of translocation conservation method
A DNA study of endangered greater prairie chickens in Illinois indicates that supplementing the dwindling population with birds from out of state did not improve genetic diversity.
Heart tissue grown on spinach leaves
Researchers face a fundamental challenge as they seek to scale up human tissue regeneration from small lab samples to full-size tissues and organs: how to establish a vascular system that delivers blood deep into the developing tissue. Researchers have now successfully turned to plants, culturing beating human heart cells on spinach leaves that were stripped of plant cells.
Tracing aromatic molecules in the early Universe
A molecule found in car engine exhaust fumes that is thought to have contributed to the origin of life on Earth has made astronomers heavily underestimate the amount of stars that were forming in the early Universe, a study has found. That molecule is called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. On Earth it is also found in coal and tar. In space, it is a component of dust.
Humans, smartphones may fail frequently to detect face morph photos
Both humans and smartphones show a degree of error in distinguishing face morph photos from their 'real' faces on fraudulent identity cards, new research has found.
Too much structured knowledge hurts creativity, shows study
Structure organizes human activities and help us understand the world with less effort, but it can be the killer of creativity, concludes a new study.
Optical tool monitors brain's circulatory response to pain
A new report demonstrates that an optical imaging tool used to monitor regional blood flow and tissue oxygenation may be used to track the brain's response to acute pain in infants, children, and adults.
'Spectacular-looking' endangered frog species discovered in Ecuador's cloud forests
It's not every day someone gets to say, 'I've discovered a new species.' It's a claim that biologist Chris Funk can happily make. Funk and collaborators, who've spent years exploring the tropical climes of South America to study the region's dizzying biodiversity, have documented a new species of rainfrog they've named the Ecuadorian rainfrog (Pristimantis ecuadorensis).
Brain 'rewires' itself to enhance other senses in blind people
The brains of those who are born blind make new connections in the absence of visual information, resulting in enhanced, compensatory abilities such as a heightened sense of hearing, smell and touch, as well as cognitive functions (such as memory and language) according to a new study.
Scientists evade the Heisenberg uncertainty principle
Researchers report the discovery of a new technique that could drastically improve the sensitivity of instruments such as magnetic resonance imagers (MRIs) and atomic clocks. The study reports a technique to bypass the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. This technique hides quantum uncertainty in atomic features not seen by the instrument, allowing the scientists to make very high precision measurements.
Silence is golden: Suppressing host response to Ebola virus may help to control infection
The Ebola virus causes a severe, often fatal illness when it infects the human body. Initially targeting cells of the immune system called macrophages, white blood cells that absorb and clear away pathogens, a new study has found a way to potentially 'silence' these Ebola virus-infected macrophages.
Lack of staffing, funds prevent marine protected areas from realizing full potential
Marine protected areas (MPAs) are an increasingly popular strategy for protecting marine biodiversity, but a new global study demonstrates that widespread lack of personnel and funds are preventing MPAs from reaching their full potential. Only 9 percent of MPAs reported having adequate staff.
How does spousal suicide affect bereaved spouse mentally, physically?
People bereaved by the suicide of a spouse were at increased risk for mental and physical disorders, suicidal behavior, death and adverse social events, according to a nationwide study based on registry data conducted in Denmark.
Use of mobile app reduces number of in-person follow-up visits after surgery
Patients who underwent ambulatory breast reconstruction and used a mobile app for follow-up care had fewer in-person visits during the first 30 days after the operation without affecting complication rates or measures of patient-reported satisfaction, according to a study.
Tiller the Hun? Farmers in Roman Empire converted to Hun lifestyle -- and vice versa
New archaeological analysis suggests people of Western Roman Empire switched between Hunnic nomadism and settled farming over a lifetime. Findings may be evidence of tribal encroachment that undermined Roman Empire during 5th century AD, contributing to its fall.
Surprising new role for lungs: Making blood
Using video microscopy in the living mouse lung, scientists have revealed that the lungs play a previously unrecognized role in blood production.
First mutations in human life discovered
The earliest mutations of human life have been observed by researchers. Analyzing genomes from adult cells, the scientists could look back in time to reveal how each embryo developed. The study shows that from the two-cell stage of the human embryo, one of these cells becomes more dominant than the other and leads to a higher proportion of the adult body.
New study shakes the roots of the dinosaur family tree
More than a century of theory about the evolutionary history of dinosaurs has been turned on its head following the publication of new research. The work suggests that the family groupings need to be rearranged, redefined and renamed and also that dinosaurs may have originated in the northern hemisphere rather than the southern, as current thinking goes.
Brief module effective in teaching hemorrhage control basics to staff in a large workplace
A medical team has developed a way to effectively provide a large group of people with basic knowledge and skills to locate and use bleeding control equipment to stop life-threatening bleeding in severely injured people.
Molecular 'treasure maps' to help discover new materials
Scientists have developed a new method which has the potential to revolutionise the way we search for, design and produce new materials.
Scientists identify a new way gut bacteria break down complex sugars
New light has been shed on the functioning of human gut bacteria which could help to develop medicines in the future to improve health and well-being.
Sea ice extent sinks to record lows at both poles
The Arctic sea ice maximum extent and Antarctic minimum extent are both record lows this year. Combined, sea ice numbers are at their lowest point since satellites began to continuously measure sea ice in 1979.
Light used to remotely control curvature of plastics
Researchers have developed a technique that uses light to get flat, plastic sheets to curve into spheres, tubes or bowls.
Under the Dead Sea, warnings of dire drought
Nearly 1,000 feet below the bed of the Dead Sea, scientists have found evidence that during past warm periods, the Mideast has suffered drought on scales never recorded by humans -- a possible warning for current times. Thick layers of crystalline salt show that rainfall plummeted to as little as a fifth of modern levels some 120,000 years ago, and again about 10,000 years ago.
Weight-bearing exercises promote bone formation in men
Osteoporosis affects more than 200 million people worldwide and is a serious public health concern, according to research. Now, newly published work is the first in men to show that long-term, weight-bearing exercises decrease sclerostin, a protein made in the bone, and increase IGF-1, a hormone associated with bone growth. These changes promote bone formation, increasing bone density.
Mapping the future of precision medicine in Parkinson's disease
A new transformative approach to defining, studying and treating Parkinson's disease has been revealed by investigators. Rather than approaching Parkinson's disease as a single entity, the international cadre of researchers advocates targeting therapies to distinct 'nodes or clusters' of patients based on specific symptoms or molecular features of their disease.
3-D printing turns nanomachines into life-size workers
Researchers have unlocked the key to transforming microscopic nanorings into smart materials that perform work at human-scale.
Machine learning lets scientists reverse-engineer cellular control networks
Researchers have used machine learning on the Stampede supercomputer to model the cellular control network that determines how tadpoles develop. Using that model, they reverse-engineered a drug intervention that created tadpoles with a form of mixed pigmentation never before seen in nature. They plan to use the method for cancer therapies and regenerative medicine.
Upper part of Earth’s magnetic field reveals details of a dramatic past
Satellites have been mapping the upper part of the Earth magnetic field by collecting data for three years and found some amazing features about the Earth’s crust. The result is the release of highest resolution map of this field seen from space to date. This ‘lithospheric magnetic field’ is very weak and therefore difficult to detect and map from space. But with the Swarm satellites it has been possible.
Making 'mulch' ado of ant hills
Ants are hardworking and beneficial insects, research reveals. In the activities of their daily lives, ants help increase air, water flow, and organic matter in soil. The work done by ants even forms a type of mulch that helps hold water in the soil.
Study identifies brain cells involved in Pavlovian response
A new study has traced the Pavlovian response to a small cluster of brain cells -- the same neurons that go awry during Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease and Tourette's syndrome. The research could one day help neuroscientists find new approaches to diagnosing and treating these disorders.
Scientists identify brain circuit that drives pleasure-inducing behavior
Neuroscientists have discovered a brain circuit that responds to rewarding events. Scientists have long believed that the central amygdala, a structure located deep within the brain, is linked with fear and responses to unpleasant events, but the new study finds that most of the neurons here are involved in the reward circuit.
Lack of leisure: Is busyness the new status symbol?
Long gone are the days when a life of material excess and endless leisure time signified prestige. According to a new study, Americans increasingly perceive busy and overworked people as having high status.
Self-sustaining bacteria-fueled power cell created
Researchers have developed the next step in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) with the first micro-scale self-sustaining cell, which generated power for 13 straight days through symbiotic interactions of two types of bacteria.
Ultrafast measurements explain quantum dot voltage drop
Solar cells and photodetectors could soon be made from new types of materials based on semiconductor quantum dots, thanks to new insights based on ultrafast measurements capturing real-time photoconversion processes.