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News (ScienceDaily Headlines)

  • Slow motion makes soccer referees more likely to give a red card

    Video assistant refereeing in soccer has to be used with caution. Researchers have shown that refs are more likely to give red when they see a foul committed in slow motion, even when a yellow card is more justifiable. This is because fouls viewed in slow motion appear to be more serious.
  • Researchers discover novel colistin resistance gene mcr-3 in Escherichia coli

    A new mobile colistin resistance gene, mcr-3, has been discovered in E. coli of pig origin. The novel mcr-3 gene was discovered when a colistin-resistant Escherichia coli isolate tested negative for both mcr-1 and mcr-2. This novel mobile colistin resistance gene may already be widely disseminated. Screening for the mcr-3 gene should be urgently included in the surveillance of colistin-resistant Gram-negative pathogens from animals, humans, and the environment.
  • Astronomers detect orbital motion in pair of supermassive black holes

    Images made with the continent-wide Very Long Baseline Array detect the orbital motion of two supermassive black holes as they circle each other at the center of a distant galaxy.
  • Older obese adults can benefit from moderate exercise

    Moderate-intensity exercise can help even extremely obese older adults improve their ability to perform common daily activities and remain independent, according to researchers.
  • Key player in heart enlargement identified

    The heart is a dynamic muscle that grows and shrinks in response to stressors such as exercise and disease. The secret to its malleability lies in individual cells, which get bigger or smaller depending on the heart's needs. A new study of mouse hearts reveals a previously unknown mechanism by which heart cells control their size by ramping up or stopping the production of a key factor called PABPC1.
  • Insights into closed enzymes

    Scientists have arrived at a structural model of the enzyme adenylate kinase in its closed state.
  • Structures vital to virus replication illuminated

    Scientists have, for the first time, imaged molecular structures vital to how a major class of viruses replicates within infected cells. The research uses pioneering cryo-electron tomography to reveal the complex viral replication process in vivid detail, opening up new avenues to potentially disrupt, dismantle or redirect viral machinery.
  • Pathway to 'rejuvenating' immune cells to fight cancers and infections

    A new discovery of the mechanism of T cell exhaustion will lead to treatments to enhance immunotherapies against cancers and such viruses as HIV.
  • Yoga more risky for causing musculoskeletal pain than you might think

    Yoga causes musculoskeletal pain in 10 percent of people and exacerbates 21 percent of existing injuries, research shows. The findings come from the first prospective study to investigate injuries caused from recreational participation in yoga. The injury rate is up to 10 times higher than has previously been reported.
  • X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy under real ambient pressure conditions

    Researchers have improved an ambient-pressure photoelectron spectroscopy instrument using hard X-rays and succeeded in photoelectron spectrometry under real atmospheric pressure for the first time in the world. The novel apparatus can be applied for observing various reactions between solid and gas under atmospheric pressure, and biological samples fragile under high vacuum.
  • The dust storm microbiome

    The airborne dust carried in sand storms affects the health of people and ecosystems alike. New research suggests that part of the effect might not be in the particles of dust but rather in bacteria that cling to them, traveling many kilometers in the air with the storms.
  • Bioplastic derived from soya protein which can absorb up to forty times its own weight

    Researchers are testing the strength of a new organic material as a dispenser of micronutrients in crops. This new product, which is organic and biodegradable, is environmentally friendly. For that reason, the experts are exploring its use in the area of horticulture, specifically as a raw material from which to make agricultural nutrient dispensers.
  • How many protozoa are in the water we drink?

    Researchers have analyzed drinking water and detected oocysts of Cryptosporidium and cysts of Giardia, two protozoa that cause outbreaks of diarrhea in humans. The levels detected are very low and do not represent a health risk; however, according to the study, the ubiquity of these parasites and the inefficiency of conventional water treatment in reducing them may present a public health issue.
  • Digital dating abuse especially bad for girls

    Teens expect to experience some digital forms of abuse in dating, but girls may be suffering more severe emotional consequences than boys, according to a new study.
  • Jellyfish fluorescence shines new light on DNA copying

    Scientists have used florescent proteins from jellyfish to help shed new light on how DNA replicates.
  • Woodrats can't stomach favorite foods at high temps

    But the woodrats' unique adaptation that allows them to break down creosote toxins may be in jeopardy if temperatures continue to rise. A new study explains why: Livers of mammals (including us) may be less efficient at breaking down toxins at higher temperatures.
  • Legal cannabis laws impact teen use

    A new study has found that adolescents living in medical marijuana states with a plethora of dispensaries are more likely to have tried new methods of cannabis use, such as edibles and vaping, at a younger age than those living in states with fewer dispensaries.
  • Blue-winged Amazon: A new parrot species from the Yucatán Peninsula

    In 2014, during a visit to a remote part of the Yucatán Peninsula in Mexico, an ornithologist came across parrots with a completely different color pattern from other known species. A new study names these birds as a new species based on its distinctive shape, color pattern, call and behavior.
  • Intracranial pathology not necessary for gadolinium deposition in brain tissues

    New research suggests gadolinium retention may be more widespread and may be present in many more, or possibly all, patients exposed to gadolinium-based contrast agents, according to new research.
  • Amber warning for the UK's access to new medicines post Brexit

    A new study explores the consequences of a British exit from the European Medicines Agency as a result of Brexit, and what this will mean for pharmaceutical regulation and future access to medicines for UK citizens.
  • Could humans ever regenerate a heart? A new study suggests the answer is 'yes'

    A new study's findings point to potential for tweaking communication between human genes and advancing our ability to treat heart conditions and stimulate regenerative healing.
  • Sequencing finds rare genetic disease risk in one out of five healthy adults

    Whole-genome sequencing found risk for rare genetic disease in 1 out of 5 generally healthy patients in primary care. The majority of those findings were not associated with clinical features of the disease in the patients, but prompted some increased costs for evaluation. While some primary care physicians may be able to manage genomic information appropriately, findings could prompt increased health care use with limited clinical value.
  • Night shifts may hinder body's ability to repair DNA damage

    Night shift work may hinder the body's ability to repair DNA damage caused by normal cellular processes, suggests a small study.
  • Odd properties of water and ice explained: Water exists as two different liquids

    Scientists have discovered two phases of liquid water with large differences in structure and density. The results are based on experimental studies using X-rays.
  • Persistent mental distress linked to higher risk of death in heart patients

    Persistent moderate to severe mental distress is linked to a significantly heightened risk of death among patients with stable coronary heart disease, finds research.
  • Exposure to light causes emotional and physical responses in migraine sufferers

    Light makes migraine headaches more painful and induces negative emotions and unpleasant physical sensations, new research confirms. Laboratory studies identify previously unknown connections between nerve cells in the eye and neurons in the brain that regulate physiological, autonomic, endocrine and emotional responses. These findings offer promising path forward for researchers in treatment of migraines.
  • Could this strategy bring high-speed communications to the deep sea?

    A new strategy for sending acoustic waves through water could potentially open up the world of high-speed communications to divers, marine research vessels, remote ocean monitors, deep sea robots, and submarines. By taking advantage of the dynamic rotation generated as the acoustic wave travels, also known as its orbital angular momentum, researchers were able to pack more channels onto a single frequency, effectively increasing the amount of information capable of being transmitted.
  • Thwarting metastasis by breaking cancer's legs with gold rods

    Your cancer has metastasized. No one wants to ever hear that. Now researchers have found a way to virtually halt cell migration, a key component in metastasis, in vitro, in human cells. In past in vivo studies in mice, treated cancer did not appear to recur. No significant side effects were observed.
  • New class of 'soft' semiconductors could transform HD displays

    New research could help usher in a new generation of high-definition displays, optoelectronic devices, photodetectors, and more. They have shown that a class of “soft” semiconductors can be used to emit multiple, bright colors from a single nanowire at resolutions as small as 500 nanometers. The work could challenge quantum dot displays that rely upon traditional semiconductor nanocrystals to emit light.
  • Blocking cancer: Scientists find new way to combat disease

    A newly developed compound shows promise for blocking cancer-causing proteins on a cellular level, outlines a new report.
  • Tracking bacterial movement between humans, animals key to understanding antibiotic resistance

    In a new study, researchers treated bacteria the way they would any ecosystem, using genomic "tags" to track bacterial transmission.
  • Hunting microbes or smelling poison: A matter of evolution

    Mammals possess several lines of defense against microbes. One of them is activated when receptors called Fprs, which are present on immune cells, bind to specific molecules that are linked to pathogens. Researchers showed in 2009 that these same receptors were also present in the nose of mice, probably to detect contaminated food or to avoid sick conspecifics. The biologists now describe how Fprs have acquired this olfactory role during rodent evolution, moving from the immune system to a neuronal system.
  • Alzheimer's disease risk linked to a network of genes associated with myeloid cells

    Researchers have found that a network of genes associated with myeloid cells is central to Alzheimer's disease susceptibility.
  • Collapse of European ice sheet caused chaos in past

    Scientists have reconstructed in detail the collapse of the Eurasian ice sheet at the end of the last ice age. The big melt wreaked havoc across the European continent, driving home the original Brexit 10,000 years ago.
  • Team launches 'comb and copter' system to map atmospheric gases

    Researchers have demonstrated a new mobile, ground-based system that could scan and map atmospheric gas plumes over kilometer distances.
  • New research could help humans see what nature hides

    Things are not always as they appear. New visual perception research explains the natural limits of what humans can see and how to find what nature hides.
  • Animals, not drought, shaped our ancestors' environment

    The expansion of grasslands isn't solely due to drought, but more complex climate factors are at work, both for modern Africans now and ancient Africans in the Pleistocene, suggests new research.
  • Glycans as biomarkers for cancer?

    Glycosylated proteins are often overexpressed in tumor cells and thus could serve as tumor markers, especially those with the interesting molecule sialic acid as their sugar moiety. Scientists now report on a bioorthogonal labeling test for sialylated glycoproteins based on a glycoproteomics approach. This assay not only assesses the level of sialylated glycans in the tumor cell membranes, but also identifies up- or downregulated proteins directly in the prostate cancer tissue.
  • Microbe mystery solved: What happened to the Deepwater Horizon oil plume?

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010 is one of the most studied spills in history, yet scientists haven't agreed on the role of microbes in eating up the oil. Now a research team has identified all of the principal oil-degrading bacteria as well as their mechanisms for chewing up the many different components that make up the released crude oil.
  • Computer model simulates sense of touch from the entire hand

    Neuroscientists have developed a computer model that can simulate the response of nerves in the hand to any pattern of touch stimulation on the skin. The tool reconstructs the response of more than 12,500 nerve fibers with millisecond precision, taking into account the mechanics of the skin as it presses up against and moves across objects.
  • Scientists create a cellular guillotine for studying single-cell wound repair

    In an effort to understand how single cells heal, a mechanical engineer developed a microscopic guillotine that efficiently cuts cells in two. Learning more about single-cell wound repair could lead to self-healing materials and machines.
  • Brains evolved to need exercise

    Mounting scientific evidence shows that exercise is good not only for our bodies, but for our brains. Yet, exactly why physical activity benefits the brain is not well understood. Researchers suggest that the link between exercise and the brain is a product of our evolutionary history and our past as hunter-gatherers.
  • Where are the new therapies for heart disease?

    Despite dramatic reductions in the death rate from cardiovascular disease, which includes heart disease and stroke, it remains the leading causes of death, and experts have expressed concern that the number of new therapies coming to market has lagged.
  • Early antiretroviral therapy linked with bone loss in patients with HIV

    Current HIV treatment guidelines now recommend initiating antiretroviral treatment (ART) at the time of diagnosis. However, a new study has found that such early ART causes greater bone loss compared with deferring ART.
  • Best practices for cochlear implant hearing preservation identified

    New research findings could transform treatment for people with cochlear implants worldwide, and may also enhance patient care.
  • A little place for my stuff: How big bacteria can grow depends on how much fat they can make

    Just as people endlessly calculate how to upsize or downsize, bacteria continually adjust their volume (their stuff) to fit inside their membrane (their space). But what limits their expansion? The answer will surprise you.
  • Air pollution casts shadow over solar energy production

    Global solar energy production is taking a major hit due to air pollution and dust. The first study of its kind shows airborne particles and their accumulation on solar cells is cutting energy output by more than 25 percent in certain parts of the world. The regions hardest hit are also those investing the most in solar energy installations -- China, India and the Arabian Peninsula.
  • 2-D material's traits could send electronics R&D spinning in new directions

    Researchers created an atomically thin material and used X-rays to measure its exotic and durable properties that make it a promising candidate for a budding branch of electronics known as 'spintronics.'
  • Alzheimer's gene associated with failure to adapt to cognitive challenge in healthy adults

    Healthy adults carrying the gene APOE4 -- the strongest known genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) -- may struggle to adapt their brain activity to increasing cognitive demands as they get older, according to a study.
  • Brain's fight and flight responses to social threat

    A new study explores the neural correlates of the 'fight-or-flight' response finds that people who choose to flee perceive a greater threat, which leads them to mentally and behaviorally disengage from the situation.
  • 'Own-point-of-view' video method leverages power of perception to improve emergency care

    The 'own-point-of-view' perspective video technique, coupled with a subjective re situ interview, provides a better understanding of how physicians make clinical decisions in an authentic treatment setting, compared with the conventional external perspective.
  • Rapidly mapping the 'social networks' of proteins

    Scientists improved upon a classic approach to mapping the interactions between proteins.
  • Insomnia medication may wake up some patients from vegetative state

    A systematic review of zolpidem for noninsomnia neurological disorders, including movement disorders and disorders of consciousness, finds reason for additional research.
  • Ten million tons of fish wasted every year despite declining fish stocks

    Industrial fishing fleets dump nearly 10 million tons of good fish back into the ocean every year, according to new research.
  • Pulling the tablecloth out from under essential metabolism

    Most organisms share the biosynthetic pathways for making crucial nutrients because it is is dangerous to tinker with them. But now a collaborative team of scientists has caught plants in the process of altering where and how cells make an essential amino acid.
  • Microscope can scan tumors during surgery and examine cancer biopsies in 3-D

    A new microscope could provide accurate real-time results during cancer-removal surgeries, potentially eliminating the 20 to 40 percent of women who have to undergo multiple lumpectomy surgeries because cancerous breast tissue is missed the first time around.
  • Cloning thousands of genes for massive protein libraries

    Discovering the function of a gene requires cloning a DNA sequence and expressing it. Until now, this was performed on a one-gene-at-a-time basis, causing a bottleneck. Scientists have invented a technology to clone thousands of genes simultaneously and create massive libraries of proteins from DNA samples, potentially ushering in a new era of functional genomics.
  • Using 'sticky' nanoparticles, researchers develop strategy to boost body's cancer defenses

    Strides have been made in the development of a strategy to improve the immune system's detection of cancer proteins by using 'sticky' nanoparticles.
  • Peanut family secret for making chemical building blocks revealed

    The peanut and its kin -- legumes -- have not one, but two ways to make the amino acid tyrosine. That might seem small, but why this plant family has a unique way to make such an important chemical building block is a mystery that extends back to the 1960s.
  • Is there an association between socioeconomic status in childhood and the heart?

    Socioeconomic inequalities are a public health challenge in cardiovascular disease and a new study examined the association of childhood family socioeconomic status in youth on measures of left ventricular mass and diastolic function 31 years later in adulthood.