Measuring patients' muscles to predict chemotherapy side effects
Measuring patients' muscle mass and quality could potentially help doctors better identify patients at high risk for toxic side effects that could require hospitalizations, researchers report.
Scientists decipher the nanoscale architecture of a beetle's shell
A professor of mechanical and materials engineering has found a way to analyze the fibrous nanostructure of a beetle's lightweight but durable shell.
What is high lipoprotein(a), and should I be concerned?
Elevations in a unusual form of cholesterol, called Lipoprotein(a) or Lp(a), as responsible for 1 in 14 heart attacks and 1 in 7 cases of aortic valve disease, research has found.
Tiny fibers open new windows into the brain
For the first time, a single multifunction flexible fiber no bigger than a human hair, has successfully delivered a combination of optical, electrical and chemical signals back and forth into the brain.
Researchers take broad look at stem cells
Scientists have focused recent work on the study of and utility of adult-derived stem cells. The team put together the review after recognizing that the medical and general communities have limited knowledge about the various types of stem cells and how they could be used in medicine.
Autism risk linked to herpes infection during pregnancy
Women actively infected with genital herpes during early pregnancy had twice the odds of giving birth to a child later diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), according to a study.
From rocks in Colorado, evidence of a 'chaotic solar system'
Plumbing a 90 million-year-old layer cake of sedimentary rock in Colorado, a team of scientists has found evidence confirming a critical theory of how the planets in our solar system behave in their orbits around the sun. The finding is important because it provides the first hard proof for what scientists call the ''chaotic solar system.'
Researchers uncover brain circuitry central to reward-seeking behavior
Scientists have found that as mice learn to associate a particular sound with a rewarding sugary drink, one set of prefrontal neurons becomes more active and promotes reward-seeking behavior while other prefrontal neurons are silenced, and those neurons act like a brake on reward-seeking.
'Quartz' crystals at Earth's core power its magnetic field
Scientists at the Earth-Life Science Institute at the Tokyo Institute of Technology report in Nature (Fen. 22, 2017) unexpected discoveries about the Earth's core. The findings include insights into the source of energy driving the Earth's magnetic field, factors governing the cooling of the core and its chemical composition, and conditions that existed during the formation of the Earth.
Simple rule predicts when an ice age ends
A simple rule can accurately predict when Earth's climate warms out of an ice age, according to new research.
Study suggests new therapy for Gaucher disease
Scientists propose that blocking a molecule that drives inflammation and organ damage in Gaucher, and maybe other lysosomal storage diseases, as a possible treatment with fewer risks and lower costs than current therapies. The team conducted the study in mouse models of lysosomal storage disease and in cells from blood samples donated by people with Gaucher disease.
CAR T cells more powerful when built with CRISPR, researchers find
Researchers have harnessed the power of CRISPR/Cas9 to create more-potent chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells that enhance tumor rejection in mice.
Brain-machine interfaces: Bidirectional communication at last
A prosthetic limb controlled by brain activity can partially recover the lost motor function. Neuroscientists asked whether it was possible to transmit the missing sensation back to the brain by stimulating neural activity in the cortex. They discovered that not only was it possible to create an artificial sensation of neuroprosthetic movements, but that the underlying learning process occurs very rapidly. These finding were obtained by resorting to imaging and optical stimulation tools.
Scientists discover how essential methane catalyst is made
New ways to convert carbon dioxide (CO2) into methane gas for energy use are a step closer after scientists discovered how bacteria make a component that facilitates the process. Recycling CO2 into energy has immense potential for making these emissions useful rather than a major factor in global warming. However, because the bacteria that can convert CO2 into methane, methanogens, are notoriously difficult to grow, their use in gas production remains limited.
NASA telescope reveals largest batch of Earth-size, habitable-zone planets around single star
NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope has revealed the first known system of seven Earth-size planets around a single star. Three of these planets are firmly located in the habitable zone, the area around the parent star where a rocky planet is most likely to have liquid water.
Hidden no more: First-ever global view of transshipment in commercial fishing industry
A new report released today presents the first global map of transshipment, a major pathway for illegally caught and unreported fish to enter the seafood market. Also associated with drug smuggling and slave labor, it is Illegal in many cases, and has been largely invisible until now. Using an artificial intelligence system developed by Global Fishing Watch, data scientists have developed an automated process for identifying and tracking transshipment around the world.
Itch neurons play a role in managing pain
There are neurons in your skin that are wired to sense itchy things. These neurons are separate from the ones that detect pain, and yet, chemical-induced itch is often accompanied by mild pain such as burning and stinging sensations. But when it comes to sending signals toward your brain through your spinal cord, itch and mild pain can go through the same set of spinal cord neurons.
Proteins in your runny nose could reveal a viral infection
It may seem obvious, but the key to confirming whether someone is suffering from a cold or flu virus might lie at the misery's source -- the inflamed passages of the nose and throat. Scientists have identified a group of proteins that, when detected in specific quantities in the mucous, are 86 percent accurate in confirming the infection is from a cold or flu virus, according to a small, proof-of-concept trial.
Making it harder to 'outsmart' concussion tests
Concussion testing on the athletic field depends upon comparing an athlete's post-concussion neurocognitive performance with the results of a previously administered baseline test. Experts believe some athletes, in hopes of a quicker post-injury return to play, may 'sandbag' the concussion test by giving a lackadaisical baseline performance. A researcher has developed a statistical technique to detect when an athlete is sandbagging.
Changing the environment within bone marrow alters blood cell development
Researchers report they can alter blood cell development through the use of biomaterials designed to mimic characteristics of the bone marrow.
High blood pressure reversed in offspring of hypertensive rats
Researchers have demonstrated how harmful health complications passed from mother rats to their offspring can be reversed. The tests may point the way toward preventing the transfer of certain health conditions from human mothers to their children.
Insight into a physical phenomenon that leads to earthquakes
Researchers provide insight into a phenomenon called ageing that leads to more powerful earthquakes.
We read emotions based on how the eye sees
We use others' eyes -- whether they're widened or narrowed -- to infer emotional states, and the inferences we make align with the optical function of those expressions, according to new research. The research reveals, for example, that people consistently associate narrowed eyes -- which can enhance visual discrimination -- with discrimination-related emotions including disgust and suspicion.
Brain scans could predict teens’ problem drug use before it starts
There's an idea out there of what a drug-addled teen is supposed to look like: impulsive, unconscientious, smart, perhaps -- but not the most engaged. While personality traits like that could signal danger, not every adolescent who fits that description becomes a problem drug user. So how do you tell who's who?
Asthma drugs could prevent prevent deadly form of pneumonia, research suggests
Two drugs used to treat asthma and allergies may offer a way to prevent a form of pneumonia that can kill up to 40 percent of people who contract it, researchers at the University of Virginia School of Medicine have found.
Historic cultural records inform scientific perspectives on woodland uses
Scientists have investigated how cultural records dating back 300 years could help improve understanding of the ways in which science interprets the many uses of woodland areas.
Birds of a feather mob together
Dive bombing a much larger bird isn't just a courageous act by often smaller bird species to keep predators at bay. It also gives male birds the chance to show off their physical qualities in order to impress females, according to new research on predator mobbing behavior of birds where potential prey approach and harass would-be predators such as owls.
What do your co-workers really think of you?
Everyday in the workplace, colleagues actively compete for a limited amount of perks, including raises, promotions, bonuses and recognition. But new research shows that, more than often than not, people fall short in determining which co-workers might be trying to edge them out on the job.
Antimicrobial substances identified in Komodo dragon blood
In a land where survival is precarious, Komodo dragons thrive despite being exposed to scads of bacteria that would kill less hardy creatures. Now in a study, scientists report that they have detected antimicrobial protein fragments in the lizard's blood that appear to help them resist deadly infections. The discovery could lead to the development of new drugs capable of combating bacteria that have become resistant to antibiotics.
Hybrid plant breeding: Secrets behind haploid inducers, a powerful tool in maize breeding
A common strategy to create high-yielding plants is hybrid breeding. However, getting the inbred lines in the first place can be a hassle. In maize, the use of so-called 'haploid inducers' provides a short cut to this cumbersome procedure, allowing to produce inbred lines in just one generation. A study now sheds light on the genetics behind haploid induction.
Nanostraws sample a cell's contents without damage
Tiny nanostraws that sample the contents of a cell without causing damage may improve our ability to understand cellular processes and lead to safer medical treatments.
A close look at sharp vision in eye structure seen only in humans and other primates
Found only in the retinas of humans and other primates, the fovea is responsible for visual experiences that are rich in colorful, spatial detail. Some reasons behind the fovea's unusual perceptual qualities have now been uncovered. Understanding these functions would be essential to designing visual prosthetics for central vision loss.
Ants stomp, termites tiptoe: Predator detection by a cryptic prey
Secretive and destructive, termites live in close proximity to predatory ants yet still outsmart them. New research shows why -- termites have evolved the capability to sense vibrations of their enemies in the substrate while moving quickly, quietly and efficiently.
Unravelling the atomic and nuclear structure of the heaviest elements
Little is known about the heaviest, radioactive elements in Mendeleev's table. But an extremely sensitive technique involving laser light and gas jets makes it possible for the very first time to gain insight into their atomic and nuclear structure.
Resveratrol may be an effective intervention for lung aging
Researchers demonstrate, for the first time that inhaled resveratrol treatments slow aging-related degenerative changes in mouse lung. Lung aging, characterized by airspace enlargement and decreasing lung function, is a significant risk factor for chronic human lung diseases.
Blood ties fuel cooperation among species, not survival instinct
Survival instinct does not influence species cooperative breeding decisions, a new study has found. Instead, it has found communal living and helping behavior, to be a natural result of monogamous relationships reinforcing stronger genetic bonds in family groups. Siblings with full biological ties are more likely than others to stay with their family, than they are to break away. This is particularly beneficial in harsh environments, like the desert, but not the overall reason why they choose to live in this way.
Researchers find potential bugs to eat invasive cogongrass
Cogongrass displaces pasture grass, golf course greens and valuable ecosystems. Now researchers are focusing on the Orseolia javanica midge that causes cogongrass to produce linear galls at the expense of leaves.
Device will rapidly, accurately and inexpensively detect zika virus at airports and other sites
About the size of a tablet, a portable device that could be used in a host of environments like a busy airport or even a remote location in South America, may hold the key to detecting the dreaded Zika virus accurately, rapidly and inexpensively using just a saliva sample. For about $2 and within 15 minutes, researchers hope to accurately determine whether or not an individual has an active infection.
No spoilers! Most people don't want to know their future
Given the chance to see into the future, most people would rather not know what life has in store for them, even if they think those events could make them happy, according to new research.
Benefits of cognitive training in dementia patients unclear
Positive effects of cognitive training in healthy elderly people have been reported, but data regarding its effects in patients with dementia is unclear, say investigators.
Risk of Ross River virus global epidemic
Australia’s Ross River Virus (RRV) could be the next mosquito-borne global epidemic, according to a new research study.
'Smart' bacteria remodel their genes to infect our intestines
Researchers have described how infectious bacteria can sense they’re attached to our intestinal cells, and then remodel their expression of specific genes, including those involved in virulence and metabolism, to exploit our cells and colonize our gut.
Surprising dunes on comet Chury
Surprising images from the Rosetta spacecraft show the presence of dune-like patterns on the surface of comet Chury. Researchers have studied the available images and modeled the outgassing of vapor to try to explain the phenomenon. They show that the strong pressure difference between the sunlit side of the comet and that in shadow generates winds able to transport grains and form dunes.
The first Iberian lynx infected by the pseudorabies virus
Matojo, the nine-month-old Iberian lynx cub found dead in 2015 in Extremadura, did not die from natural causes. His necropsy shows that it was the pseudorabies virus that triggered his sudden demise. Before this case, contagion of this infectious disease was only known in one wild cat in the world, a Florida panther.
Superfluid is now helping brain surgeons
A superfluid, which resembles brain tissue, makes ultrasound images easier to interpret during an operation. This will make it easier for surgeons to remove brain tumors more accurately, say researchers.
New tool developed to help avoid adverse drug reactions
Medicines are an important part of treating and preventing disease in adults and children. Now researchers have developed a new tool to help avoid adverse reactions to medicines.
A problem shared can be a problem doubled
Customers perceive one and the same service problem very differently, depending on whether they are affected as individuals or in a group, investigators have found. Service failures that affect a group of customers cause them to be more annoyed with the provider than problems that impact an individual.
Obesity reprograms muscle stem cells
Obesity is associated with reduced muscle mass and impaired metabolism. Epigenetic changes that affect the formation of new muscle cells may be a contributing factor, according to new research.
Precise inactivation of neural messenger receptor wipes out fear memory in mice
Research combines antibody precision with toxic oxygen burst to inactivate neural protein and temporarily abolish fear memory in mice.
Reduction of energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions: Promotion or steering?
Policy interventions to reduce energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions have a variety of effects on the economy and on households. A study has provided the first detailed impact assessment of the efficiency and social balance of the energy policy measures “steering” and “promotion.”
Estrogen therapy shown effective in reducing tooth and gum diseases in postmenopausal women
Estrogen therapy has already been credited with helping women manage an array of menopause-related issues, including reducing hot flashes, improving heart health and bone density, and maintaining levels of sexual satisfaction. Now a new study suggests that the same estrogen therapy used to treat osteoporosis can actually lead to healthier teeth and gums.
Giving weight to Darwin's theory of 'living fossils'
Scientists studying the 'living fossil' Sphenodon -- or tuatara -- have identified a new way to measure the evolutionary rate of these enigmatic creatures, giving credence to Darwin's theory of 'living fossils.'
Possible dark matter ties in Andromeda Galaxy
NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has found a signal at the center of the neighboring Andromeda galaxy that could indicate the presence of the mysterious stuff known as dark matter. The gamma-ray signal is similar to one seen by Fermi at the center of our own Milky Way galaxy.
Scientists create a nano-trampoline to probe quantum behavior
For the first time, scientists have measured quantum criticality by developing a thin membrane suspended in air by very narrow bridges, thereby forming a 'nano-trampoline'. This enabled specific heat measurements of thin films through a quantum phase transition from a superconducting state to an electrically insulating state close to absolute zero temperature, and is expected to be a milestone in the understanding of physical processes that govern the behavior of ultrathin systems at ultralow temperatures.
Popular heartburn drugs linked to gradual yet 'silent' kidney damage
The sudden onset of kidney problems often serves as a warning for doctors to discontinue patients' use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), sold under brand names Prevacid, Prilosec, Nexium and Protonix, among others. But a new study indicates that more than half of patients who develop chronic kidney damage while taking the drugs don't experience acute kidney problems beforehand, according to researchers.
Rare fossils of giant rodents raise questions
Adult and juvenile remains of a giant rodent species (Isostylomys laurdillardi) have been uncovered by researchers, in the Río de la Plata coastal region of southern Uruguay, raising questions about classification within dinomids.
Scientists identify chain reaction that shields breast cancer stem cells from chemotherapy
Working with human breast cancer cells and mice, researchers say they have identified a biochemical pathway that triggers the regrowth of breast cancer stem cells after chemotherapy.
Hormonal maintenance therapy may improve survival in women with chemo-resistant rare ovarian or peritoneum cancer
For women with a rare subtype of epithelial ovarian or peritoneum cancer, known as low-grade serous carcinoma (LGSC), hormone maintenance therapy (HMT) may significantly improve survival, according to a new study.
Pre-eclampsia significantly increases risk of heart disease in later life, study reveals
Women who suffered pre-eclampsia during pregnancy are four times more likely to have heart failure in later life, new research shows.
Unlocking the heart-protective benefits of soy
A product of digesting a micronutrient found in soy may hold the key to why some people seem to derive a heart-protective benefit from eating soy foods, while others do not.