From the 16th century, present-day Colombia formed the nucleus of the region that Spanish conquistadors called New Granada. In the early 1800s, people like Antonio Nariño began agitating for independence. A prominent early revolutionary leader, Nariño helped foment rebellion by distributing The Declaration of the Rights of Man to his countrymen. Parts of Colombia threw off Spanish jurisdiction in 1810, but full independence was not secured until nine years later, under what famous revolutionary? Discuss
The Franco-Prussian War was the outcome of the progressive unification of German states after the Napoleonic Wars. Events came to a head when the Spanish throne was offered to a member of the Prussian Hohenzollern family, raising the possibility of a Prussian-Spanish alliance against France. The French government demanded assurances that no member of the Hohenzollern family would ever rule Spain and declared war when it was refused. What famously insulting telegram prompted France's declaration?
In Roman Catholicism, papal infallibility is the doctrine that, under certain conditions, the pope cannot err when teaching in matters of faith or morals. It is a centuries-old idea based on the belief that the church, entrusted with the mission of Jesus, will be guided by the Holy Spirit. It has been a matter of controversy, even among Catholic theologians, ever since 1870, when the First Vatican Council first listed the conditions under which popes are infallible. What are they?